They’re about to graduate from medical school with an MD to their names, but hundreds of students across the US learned this week that they haven’t advanced to the next step of training — and will not be allowed to practice medicine.

Most medical students found out Friday where they’re headed for their residency, where they’ll work alongside licensed doctors, gradually gaining more responsibility. But each year, a sizable group learns shortly before the official “Match Day” that they’ve been shut out of this training.

This year, for instance, more than 29,000 applicants got placed in a first-year residency through the main matching process. But 8,640 did not — a number that includes international applicants and aspiring physicians who graduated from medical schools in recent years, as well as current fourth-year students.


That mismatch has prompted a policy debate: Should the rural and urban clinics that struggle to find doctors be allowed to scoop up unmatched graduates so their talents don’t go to waste? Or would it be dangerous to put them in front of patients without a traditional residency, which typically lasts at least three years?

Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas have passed laws to allow unmatched graduates to work in medically underserved areas without doing a residency.

Otherwise, “a lot end up wasting all of their education, because there is no place for them in the health care delivery system without having a residency,” said Dr. Edmond Cabbabe, a plastic surgeon in St. Louis who conceived of the Missouri law.

Passed in 2014, but not yet implemented, the law will create an “assistant physician” license for these newly minted doctors, who will work with a collaborating physician. That physician will have to directly supervise the new doctors for at least a month before they can see patients on their own. One impetus for the law: Nearly all of Missouri’s 101 rural counties face a shortage of primary care providers.

Arkansas this year approved new rules allowing recent medical school graduates with ties to the state to work as a “graduate registered physician” before residency. Kansas, too, created a special license; it’s restricted to graduates of the University of Kansas School of Medicine who strike out in the match process, and it allows them to work, under supervision, for just two years. At that point, they’re expected to move on to a residency.

While supporters hail such laws as a groundbreaking solution, the medical establishment has frowned on them.

The Association of American Medical Colleges “is concerned by efforts that would bypass the experiences necessary for physicians to provide safe and effective patient care independently,” said Tannaz Rasouli, AAMC’s senior director of government relations.

The American Medical Association also came out against such programs. Instead, it has called on government, insurance payers, and foundations to pitch in money to create more residency spots.

So far, no one is practicing medicine under any of those new regulations.

But they could help MDs like Dr. Heidi Schmidt, a Juilliard-trained opera singer and entrepreneur who graduated from American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine on the island of St. Maarten. She received honors in clinical coursework, but struggled with standardized tests and had to make multiple attempts to pass two national board exams.

Residency programs often see multiple board exam attempts and degrees from foreign medical schools as red flags when evaluating candidates.

Schmidt, who also has master’s degrees in public health, music, and pharmaceutical science, has the title “doctor,” but her options are limited. Without at least one year of postgraduate residency, she can’t practice medicine in the United States. To work as a nurse or a physician assistant, she’d have to go back to school and get a different degree.

To stay in medicine, she volunteers in Indianapolis at Gennesaret Free Clinics for the homeless and working poor. She sees patients, but she said a licensed physician must sign off on all her work. Schmidt said she can’t get paid until she becomes a licensed physician. And she longs to treat patients on her own.

“My dream has always been to be a physician for the poor,” she said.

Heidi Schmidt Match Day
Dr. Heidi Schmidt at the St. Vincent de Paul food pantry in Indianapolis, Ind. After not being matched with a residency, Schmidt’s plans of becoming a licensed doctor are on hold, so she volunteers at a medical clinic there. Lucas Carter for STAT

Seniors in traditional (non-osteopathic) US medical schools have better odds than those from foreign schools: Their match rate has hovered around 94 percent. But that still means 1,130 didn’t get a residency in the main match this year.

That news can be a shock. As a senior at the University of Virginia medical school last year, Dr. Daniel Harris applied to 67 general surgery residencies and landed eight interviews at residency programs. On the Monday before Match Day, he got an email letting him know that none had accepted him.

Harris said he was in disbelief, but he didn’t have time to process that feeling. He had just two hours to decide which programs he would apply to through the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program, or SOAP, which helps unmatched applicants find open spots.

Harris picked 20 programs and hit “submit.”

“I maybe started crying at that point,” he said. “There was nothing more I could do.”

Harris got lucky: He was one of 599 US medical school seniors who scooped up unfilled spots through SOAP last year. Other types of applicants — for instance, those from foreign schools — grabbed another 400-plus spots.

That still left hundreds of seniors at US medical schools, and thousands from international schools, halted in their quest to practice medicine in the United States.

Were they weeded out for good reason? That’s open for debate. Surely, some were ill-prepared. Others may have been unlucky or just played their cards wrong when picking which residencies to apply for.

The most common reason for not matching is poor scores on national board exams, according to a 2005 survey by the AAMC. Other reasons include: applying to a specialty that’s too competitive for the applicant’s academic standing; poor interviewing or interpersonal skills; and having to take a board exam multiple times to pass.

Some people in this situation, like Dr. Nick Milligan, decide not to pursue a medical license. Milligan graduated from St. George’s University School of Medicine, on the Caribbean island of Grenada, in 2014. He said he was disappointed not to match with a residency, but he ended up happily employed at Coachella Valley Volunteers in Medicine in California, where he has used his medical training to build a diabetes education program.

Medical school grads face a staggering $183,000 in debt, on median, but they can seek relief, as Milligan does, from federal programs that limit monthly loan payments to 10 percent of income.

Most graduates of US medical schools don’t give up on becoming a licensed doctor if they don’t match, said Geoffrey Young, AAMC’s senior director for student affairs and programs. They often spend a year doing research, or complete a fifth year of medical school, then apply to the match the following year.

More than 99 percent of US medical school graduates do end up practicing medicine within six years of graduation, Young and coauthors found in a study published in JAMA.

The new state laws might offer some of the unmatched students another route to a medical career.

Missouri is expected to open enrollment for its assistant physician license this fall. Because it has the least restrictive rules, it may face a flood of applicants from around the country.

Schmidt could be one of them.

If Missouri opens the door for her to treat patients, she said, “I’d pack up and move in a second.”

Update: The story has been updated to include statistics about the matching program for this year.

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  • Every unmatched doctor reading this…DO NOT GIVE UP. I know how demoralizing it can be to not match. I did not match in emergency medicine(EM) initially, I had to scramble. The scramble is now called SOAP. I was fortunate enough to match in EM, a competitive specialty. I was accepted into a brand new program. There were 8 of us. All of us did not match initially. An entire class of EM residents who did not match. The irony is that we ranged from academic scholars who did exceptional on their boards and obtained honors in their clinical rotations to those who did well but were not exceptional. We all graduated and are practicing physicians today. There is no rhyme or reason. There are good test takers who stink clinically and there poor test takers who are the best physicians one could ever see. Scores are suggestive, they are not indicative of who will be the best candidate. I’m living proof. I sucked at standardized exams, yet I managed to do well enough on my MCAT and USMLE exams. I’ve now been practicing nearly 24 years and have a spotless record. I’m board certified in EM twice over. And I still stink at standardized tests. I just have to study months in advance while colleagues only need a couple of weeks. You know your weakness and you address it. Mine is in test taking, it is not in clinical practice. That is where I excel. Believe in yourself and remember what it took for you to even get into med school. Everyone doesn’t make it, but you did. You fight for that residency. You make phone calls. You badger. Convince the program directors that you are what they want and the chance they take on you will not be wasted. Nothing worth having ever comes easy. DO NOT GIVE UP.

    There is hope. There is a bipartisan bill that has been introduced on the Hill: The Resident Physician Shortage Reduction Act of 2019. This will increase Medicare funding for residencies over the next 5 years. Push your representatives to get behind this bill. If this country is serious about increasing the number of physicians, they will support this bill as well. DO…NOT…GIVE…UP.

    • Stop taking foreign medical students. America is sacrificing our own people by giving preference to them for admission to American schools and then you allow foreign medical school graduates to compete against American students for residency positions. This has to stop.

  • The match system is unfair to American born students why would you take a foreign student instead of an American born person they need to match USA citizens before anyone else

  • These are compelling statistics, particularly considering the care with which medical students are chosen and taught. How do we compare: What are the corresponding statistics for other countries similar to this country–Canada, England, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy?

  • How many American medical senior students (md and do) are there and how many total first year residency positions are there? What is the mismatch?

  • M.D. and a J.D. are just degrees, evidence of higher education. To practice medicine and law, you need to take the state exams. Good luck.
    Same for a CPA. You pass the state exam and then you need to be an indentured servant of a CPA firm for two years before you get your certificate.

    • Same goes towards Counseling and Social Work, Architecture and Urban Planning right?

      What about Engineering?

    • I don’t expect the general public to have knowledge about what is going on in the medical system. In order to graduate from medical school, you have to pass three national exams. The USMLE step1, Step2 and step 2 CS. So exam is required to get the license but you need to do a residency as well. I hope that clears up some confusion.

  • I’m a medical student out of the caribean. I’m going to do orthopedic surgery. So if you ask me what to do if you don’t match I’ll tell you what to do: go teach, sell your soul to {insert name of massive chemical/pharmaceutical company}, find a plane to {insert name of country here} and live out the rest of your days as a pirate physician who illegally helps all, or simply do what you do best and stop dicking around and study your enzymes/diseases/drugs while you enjoy the company of yourself/your family/ your true friends(&if you don’t have any of these it’s alright; you have your soul, your imagination, plus your human Will; precious beyond all worth). Who cares what these people tell you, you’re going to do this physician thing for the rest of your life(Unless you’re total garbage and want nothing but $$mulla$$). That’s why you shouldn’t care what happens in the next 3 years. You’re good bro; you can do anything. By that definition you can also chill the mind right now for a sec
    So chill. Relax
    what will worrying do ?
    Elevate reactive oxygen species
    Look up the Wim Hof method & get ready to study or to earn money.
    I recommend applying at one of those massive pharmaceutical companies or others like dow(they do chemicals&what not). As a physician you’re well educated in public speaking & they’ll pay you big bucks to mislead generations of humans(dow). Pays good. I’d never do it, personally… but if you’re that desperate that you start feelin’ bummed out about debt… Also you could run for congress that pays GREAT. Listen, life is too precious & though money makes a difference you gotta remember that for all we know we only get just this one life. All I want to do is know this stuff. Once I know it they’ll never take it away & it doesn’t matter where I go to, I know what to do. You really care that much about sticking around where you grew up? Lock down the hatch and ether earn some money(dow) or study like mad(for future residency use torent to find $$$$$$$books$$$$$ for free instantly so you can study say orthopedic surgery when you’re in college). Sure, maybe what you memorize will be worthless, or it could be the single greatest thing you ever spent your time on(it’s a worthwhile gamble). First year caribean student straight b’s because I’m dumb, obviously. Do your thing & don’t listen to me. What do I know? Other than no winter beaches!!!

    • What amazing choice…to add some positivity and levity to the conversation.
      Everywhere you turn there is some more downer news, adding another speck of doubt where they need not be any.

  • Medical schools in the US should use alumni funds to sponsor preliminary positions for their unmatched graduates. I am a graduate from a US medical school and I earned the right to be called a doctor and to practice clinically. Osteopathic schools and organizations believe that all medical school graduates should have access to the training programs necessary for their success and, more importantly, to provide the best care for their patients. The AMA does not. The number of medical school graduates is at an all-time high. The increased output of medical school graduates and the paucity of primary care residency programs gives graduate physicians without licenses few options to work in the healthcare industry and no ability to clinically interact with patients. This is a known national issue but the solution is to hire more mid-level providers. In fact, doctors are being replaced with nurse practitioners or physicians assistants. I appreciate and support the work of Mid-level practitioners (MLPs) but knowledge gaps exist.

    • You are obviously extremely ignorant about what physician extenders are. They are not replacements for MDs. PA cannot replace MDs since they are under MDs supervision always and are there to extend the work of a physician and support the medical team.

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