Napster founder and Facebook investor Sean Parker recently announced he was donating $250 million to establish the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, which will focus on a new model of rapid-cycle innovation and collaboration between six of the nation’s leading cancer centers. So far, more than 300 scientists have signed on.
One revolutionary aspect of this consortium is that the participating researchers have agreed to share not just data but also revenues from intellectual property rights derived from their discoveries. This is a crucial step — progress slows when researchers, cancer centers, and others keep information to themselves in the quest for more funding, licensing deals, and top billing in prestigious journals.
Cancer isn’t one disease; it’s hundreds. And it rapidly evolves to sidestep drug therapy. To beat it down and keep it down, it is essential to deliver the right medicines in the right sequence. No single cancer center sees enough data from enough patients to identify all of the variations needed to develop tailored treatments for the many subtypes of the disease, or for rare tumor types. Pooling and analyzing data from hundreds of thousands or millions of cancer patients can speed the development of new therapies.
Today, strong silos keep data trapped in clinical trial repositories, in patients’ electronic medical records, and in tumor scans or physician notes that aren’t in digital formats. By breaking down these silos, we can make quantum leaps in fighting cancer. What we need are data enclaves. These secure, typically cloud-based environments would give researchers access to patient data stripped of names, addresses, and other identifying information. These data would come from cancer clinical trials, pharmaceutical companies, the National Cancer Institute, and the nation’s leading cancer centers. Any institution that contributes data would have access to the enclave, provided it commits to ongoing data sharing and abides by standard licensing agreements.
No one wants to give away what might be a key to developing the next billion dollar cancer treatment. Data enclaves can help solve this problem by creating new revenue streams that flow to everyone who shares data.
That would mean setting up intellectual property rights for products developed from the data. For instance, if a drug based on a cancer mutation discovered in an enclave passed through the FDA’s Accelerated Approval Program, the drug’s sponsor would pay royalties back to the enclave. That money could be used to support future cancer research projects.
Eventually, an enclave would be a self-funding entity.
Everyone would benefit from cancer data enclaves. Companies and researchers could identify key tumor variants and rare subtypes of cancer far faster than they can today. Insurers could develop precision guided treatment pathways. Patients and doctors would have a better sense of what works.
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors has proposed that authors share de-identified patient data from published articles of clinical trials that are “required to reproduce the article’s findings” within six months of publication. That’s a good start to populating cancer data enclaves. But getting them up and running would require additional steps.
As part of his National Cancer Moonshot Initiative, Vice President Biden could offer prospective enclaves seed money if they meet certain minimum standards. The moonshot should also rally stakeholders to agree on a new intellectual property rights regime for biomarkers (objectively measurable indicators of disease progression, such as tumor size) developed from enclaves’ research. This would provide a strong financial impetus to share critical data that could shave years off the drug development process. Drug companies, philanthropists, or foundations should be allowed to contribute funding for data de-identification and curation. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation and other governmental organizations could also play roles in launching cancer data enclaves.
In the fiercely competitive pharmaceutical industry, collaboration might seem to be a bridge too far. But there are promising precedents, like Project Data Sphere. In this industry-led platform, launched in 2014, pharmaceutical companies have agreed to share data about nearly 30,000 cancer patients to help develop better clinical trial designs and identify cohorts of patients who don’t benefit from standard chemotherapy. Founding members included Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Celgene, Janssen, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Pfizer, and Sanofi. If these competitors can share data, so can others.
If we’re serious about winning the war against cancer, data enclaves and targeted intellectual property rights for biomarkers can create a business case for data sharing. Marrying altruism with self-interest can show us the way.
Tom Coburn, MD, a physician and former senator from Oklahoma, is an adviser to Project FDA at the Manhattan Institute. Daniel P. Petrylak, MD, is professor of medicine and urology at the Yale Cancer Center.
This is a comment about means of sharing “advances” related to the care of cancer patients from the experience of a primary care physician who has a PhD in Biochemistry and an interest in the William Davidson’s NF-kB activation based theory of disease origin and Joe McCord’s Nrf2 activation based theory of the treatment of disease and its complications.
NF-kB = Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta
William Davidson’s theory of disease origin based on activation of NF-kB
Nrf2 = Nuclear Factor 2
Joe McCord’s theory of treatment of disease is based on NF-kB’s activation of free radical producing oxidase enzymes and Nrf2’s activation of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase….etc
Mol Aspects Med. 2011 Aug;32(4-6):234-46. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2011.10.006. Epub 2011 Oct 15.
Oxidative stress in health and disease: the therapeutic potential of Nrf2 activation.
Hybertson BM, Gao B, Bose SK, McCord JM.
All of the above is based on and has an effect on one’s immune response systems
Salsalate a dimer of aspirin is an inhibitor of NF-kB activation and has been proposed as an inhibitor, for example, of colon cancer onset.
Salsalate also stimulates the activation of Nrf2
Ironically, if salsalate fits nicely into inhibiting the onset of cancer and stimulating Nrf2 that might at the least be influential in the inhibition of some of the complications of cancer, the lack of recognition by CMS of the existence of the prescription drug, salsalate, establishes how brain dead CMS is to the medical literature that includes salsalate’s positive effects also on A1c levels, knee pain, risk of GI bleed from a NSAID – salsalate being in a salicylate third category of NSAID, the ability to monitor adherence to therapy with blood levels and the risk of having cardiovascular side effects from an NSAID.
I am not a pharmacy shill; I am a general internist who was a fellow grad student at Duke in the late 1960’s / early 1970’s with Joe McCord PhD in Biochemistry with a common mentor, Irwin Fridovich PhD who co-discovered Superoxide Dismutase with Dr. McCord. Since those early days all of us who passed through Dr. Fridovich’s lab have been thinking and acting on the proposition that ROS based signaling systems and out of control ROS activation is involved in many, many human diseases, including cancer because of their relationship to inflammation, epigenetic events, immune system response, other signaling systems and therapeutic complications and outcomes.
Consideration of the literature behind the above theories could assist cancer researchers interest in advancing the field of using the immune system to fight cancer and its complications.
The same holds for metabolic syndrome. Share the data to cure the illness.
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