s the abuse of prescription painkillers stubbornly persists across the country, nearly half of the states have attempted to cut off the supply at its source in the past year, by making it harder for doctors to prescribe the addictive pills to Medicaid patients.

States such as New York, Rhode Island, and Maine adopted new limits on the number of pills that doctors can prescribe, and West Virginia will, starting next year, require prior authorization from the state’s Medicaid program for opioid painkiller prescriptions. In the 2016 fiscal year, 22 states either adopted or toughened their prescription size limits, and 18 did so with prior authorization.

The goal is to make physicians think twice before prescribing the highly addictive medicines — a change many say is necessary, especially within the state-federal health insurance program for low-income people. Research indicates that Medicaid beneficiaries are prescribed opioids at twice the rate of the rest of the population, and are at three-to-six times greater risk of a fatal overdose.


The rules can take the form of seemingly straightforward controls such as limiting prescriptions to a one-month supply and requiring patients to pick up their doctors’ written re-fill order in person. For some physicians and patient advocacy groups, though, they are problematic.

“This is really going to limit patient access,” said Dr. John Meigs, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians, and a practicing doctor in Centreville, Ala. “There are patients with legitimate pain, who have legitimate need.”

Many states acted after the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released a list of “best practices” last January, which encouraged state Medicaid programs to adopt more stringent requirements for opioids. Some states had already done so, but the CMS advisory accelerated the trend.

A total of 46 Medicaid programs have put in place prescription caps, 45 require prior authorization, 42 need proof that patients meet medical criteria to receive opioids, and 32 allow the drugs only after patients have exhausted other options, which is called step therapy.

Some commercial plans are also using these kinds of strategies, though experts said it’s unclear how far that trend will spread.

“This is an indication that policymakers are finally recognizing that overprescribing of opioids is fueling the epidemic,” said Dr. Andrew Kolodny, a Brandeis University senior scientist and the executive director of Physicians Responsible for Opioid Prescribing, an advocacy group. Both overdose deaths involving prescription opioids and US sales of the drugs have roughly quadrupled since 1999, with more than 14,000 deaths reported in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Others addicted to pain pills die after switching to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, which often sell for less on the street and pack more of a punch.

But some physicians argue that this perspective overlooks the separate, underlying challenge of treating a chronic condition. “Just because it is now harder to prescribe patients opioid medicines, it does not mean we have fewer patients who have pain,” said Dr. Eric Weil, the associate chief for clinical affairs in internal general medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

Such restrictions can become a difficulty, especially since Medicaid beneficiaries already are dealing with limited means.

For instance, a smaller prescription dose means patients who already are suffering intense pain, making travel a hardship, have to visit the doctor more often for medicine absorbing time and extra money for gas or public transportation.

Worried about creating such barriers, some state Medicaid officials are trying to strike a balance between limiting abuse and allowing reasonable access to medications.

Louisiana’s Medicaid program, for instance, has capped the number of pills a doctor can prescribe, so a prescription can’t span longer than 30 days, and it requires proof that clinical guidelines have been followed before opioid painkillers are used. State officials are eyeing additional changes, such as lower prescription caps and prior authorization for opioid prescriptions.

But years of budget cuts mean there’s not enough money to properly cover a robust array of alternatives to opioids. For example, beneficiaries are limited to one visit with a pain specialist.

“It’s not enough,” said SreyRam Kuy, Louisiana’s Medicaid medical director.

“We need much more to address this,” she said. “If you just cut off the pills, it’s not addressing the bigger picture.”

Massachusetts’s Medicaid program also has in place some of the prescribing controls. But it, too, is “pretty haphazard” when it comes to making alternatives available, Weil said.

That’s a real concern, said Dr. Steve Diaz, an emergency physician in Maine, who is consulting with that state’s Medicaid program as it develops its regulations. The patients being squeezed often don’t have extra money to pay out of pocket for options such as acupuncture and tai chi or yoga classes, all of which can sometimes be used to help manage pain, he noted.

That said, given the spread of opioid abuse, using insurance rules to curtail prescribing makes sense, he said. And while evidence is limited, restricting insurance coverage generally has worked to drive down prescriptions of other particular drugs. But “these are blunt instruments,” Diaz said. “We do have to be thoughtful.”

If Medicaid plans try to curb physician painkiller prescribing, they need to be nuanced, Kuy said. For instance, states must account for people such as cancer patients, who may legitimately need heavy-duty opioids. Carving out the right kinds of exceptions, Diaz said, will be a major challenge.

And, experts noted, it’s still unclear if these strategies can make a difference.

“Will these policies have the intended effects? There’s very limited evidence [they will],” said Dr. Jonathan Chen, an instructor at Stanford University School of Medicine, who has researched opioid abuse. “On the other hand, the problem has grown to the point where we have to do something.”

This story was published in partnership with Kaiser Health News.

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  • Heroin laced car fentanyl..from China is the root of most O.D. in the U.S. As usual govt. N DHS. Cover their tracks.Blamegame and the poverty stricken pay the price. Successfully intimidating doctors with fear. TRULY SAD. Ironic. Pot is class 2 narcotic and states are legalizing marijuana.

  • people that have money that are not on medicaid sell to the people that cant get what they need for pain [on medicaid ] . I am a 2 time cancer patient and live in PAIN, because of RADIATION DAMAGE ,I live in PAIN and can get nothing NOTHING done ,so we turn to the streets , AND WE ARE CALLED ADDICTS because of this , I have tried for over 20 years to get something done ,but can NOT ,because of this, I never asked for CANCER, and have hart attack and high blood pressure ,because of PAIN

  • As a former opiod user for chronic back pain, I had to turn somewhere when I could no longer get the relief I desperately needed. Unfortunately I ended up turning to the streets. I do not know the quality of the pills I am receiving and have ended up in the emergency room 4 times last year for related reasons. I am no longer sure what I can do for relief. Things feel absolutely hopeless.

  • the government is getting far too involved in patients’ medicine. by setting these cookie cutter limits, (regardless whether a person has fibro, or a debilitating spinal cord injury, or worse), they may very well get a handle on the opiod issue. but then what will they decide to do when the suicide rate with chronic pain patients, goes thru the roof? because once a person is no longer able to get proper pain control, and unable to be a productive part of society, and able to meet our daily responsibilities, we then become a burden on those around us, and we begin to think that they are better off without us, than us suffering thru, (not to mention those having to bear witness to their loved one’s suffering), we might be better off if we just were no longer around. just something to think about.

    • Ido not have a deadly deseas but I have leaved in notable pain for 5 years Ipudendal need surgery but have not been ablel to find a surgeon who does pudendal neoralga surgery, I need my pain meds till then, why should I suffer because of people who take advantig of med?

  • I mean, I’m saying, where in the world were all these ‘so called’ drug overdose preventing guardian angels when they were needed, and could have served well.. let them tell it.. our valuable lives lost like Whitney Houston, Michael Jackson, Prince, hell .. Elvis Presley..? I don’t even care to go on, to be honest… its too heartbreaking. And one things for sure, I doubt seriously if any of them, ++plus PLENTY more, were medicaid recipients either. I mean, what’s really going on.. also seems and smells VERY much like stereotyping..profiling…and discrimination as well, against the lower class, economically challenged group in society as well. It’s being down-right voiced out, that these harsher and stricter guidelines and restrictions are being primarily geared, aimed towards, and heavily implemented on the medicaid and medicare recipients. So what have we here, yet another ‘positive’ benefit and score for the ‘opioid epidemic crusade’… “Yay..We MAY have saved some more lives from POSSIBLE addiction and overdosing, which oh happens to be from the primarily lower-class {i.e. the medicaid recipient classification group}, less fortunate ones…those who’s lives {we’re trying to give the appearance that we care about saving the lives of}, on the contrary, we also just don’t quite happen to care enough about to treat them equally, or lets just also say.. as we do the high..upper-level…stair climber award achievers, if you will.

    • A-MEN!! my question is, when we no longer can get the meds we so desperately depend on, to continue being productive pieces of society, have been “too controlled”, (…in the name of saving our lives, of course!), until they become unavailable, what will the “government” decide then, to do about the suicide rate among chronic pain sufferers? …because, mark my words here… IT WILL BE COMING SOON!! there are too many people like me, (spinal cord injury-got stabbed in my back at 13 yrs of age, by a mental patient… where was the “government”, THEN?? i have had many surgeries, lost a leg, and have full blown aids for almost 30 years, now, to name just a FEW of my issues), who desperately depend on these meds, who will have no where to turn, and will either land in the ER’s on a heroine OD, or just kill themselves out right, and be done w it. THEN, maybe they will re-think their decisions. but how many will end up being casualties during the learning process?!!
      thank you for your comment. you hit the nail!!!

  • And yes I said, and mean EVERY word of what I voiced. If there exist anyone who would give me just the opportunity to confront the ones I’m directing every word to, I would be MORE than happy to oblige, and will by ALL means repeat each and every thought, feeling, and statement I uttered. In turn, I will also be more than willing to pause and listen to their justification and reasoning, in all fairness and their defense behind their actions. Which by the way is, needless to say, they on the other hand failed to offer the other side..a good old faithful and true fair chance. Thereafter, I will proceed on to speak as a victim, not looking from the outside in, assuming or guessing what things are.. but from actual feelings in real time that I can speak from EXPERIENCE.. which I can just about bet my last $ cannot be offered in return. I’m talking a Real & True..heartfelt testimony, from someone is actually FEELING the effects of OTHER peoples actions and LACK of consideration, understanding, sympathy, empathy, and experience. Things almost NEVER hit home, sad to say, until its right there in your backyard, and right there point blank at some peoples damn doorstep.

  • I would just like to express my deep feelings about just how evil I think it is that all these laws and so called ‘concerned’ entities have gone to these nothing short of EXTREME measures to cut short/off some peoples only means of comfort, when they have LEGITIMATE pain issues they have to live with every hour on the hour, day after day. If the concern is to control a ‘so-called’ epidemic, then the same care and compassion would have been there to offer, or put in place alternatives for the true victims, at the end of the day. Most of the people coming up with all these non-verified, un-tested, or virtually statistical assumptions don’t have to go thru, or know how it feels having to cope and deal with pain and discomfort EVERY single day. They apparently made themselves so smart to have supposedly come up with all these diversions and hurdles, but obviously not enough sense and/or intelligence to just plain and simply say {or allow the thought to somewhat pop-up anywhere in their brains} “well on behalf of/consideration for those who do have legitimate pain issues, we should put as much energy into implementing some alternative options, so there won’t be people left suffering just as much”. There is no doubt/granted that drug abuse and addiction exist, and there are people who may be receiving pain medications, but don’t REALLY need them. But just as well, there are ALSO those who equally or perhaps more so, have and are suffering from cases that are in fact…the exact opposite. So it appears that, in just a brief summary the notion was just made and came to some quick, not well thought out conclusion, that there is a great desire to believe you’re saving lives, by just throwing any old thing out there to say.. ACTION TAKEN & ENFORCED WITH VENGEANCE!! But who cares about those other lives out there that suffer daily to a degree that discourages their desire to live daily, with such a poor quality of life having to consistently experience, cope with, live through and endure agonizing pain and discomfort, that from only the experience of the beholder is the actual experience understood, considered, and empathized with. Meanwhile, the ones that obviously have all brains (seemingly too that is), but NO heart, just relish on some non-factual intuition, that “We MAY have developed a system of some sort, (and I do mean just any ol’ sort) that MAY work in controlling this proposed ‘opioid crisis’, that MAY possibly save some lives {oh and that’s also provided you’re able to some how subsequently and magically stop all those extras from their spree, & who by the way*NEWS FLASH*WILL obtain whatever it is they’re seeking regardless and right under the nose of your wake of what..some power trip to show you’re in control of making the good suffer for the bad by whatever foolish and insensitive means possible/being all it’s ultimately good for}. Basically, I think it would have been a truly heroic, genius, and compassionate move for perhaps other venues, remedies, options, and resolutions were included/implemented into a total package deal that’s not seeming to tackle one problem, while creating a whole other! But every dog has it’s day.. and those insensitive, solders marching in Satan’s army will be dished out the same exact measures and cruel antics they are going the extra mile to impose upon all the innocent people and victims of their evil actions and heartless ways.

  • There is no doubt in my mind what so ever that these arrogantly judgmental fools do not know what its like to be forced to work physical labor with conditions that causes moderate to severe chronic pain. Pain gets to your head after a while even if its not off the charts. The arrogance and audacity of these judgmental incompetent weasels sickens me….absolutely Deplorable.
    Its inhumane to do this. I feel its all about money…they dont care about addiction, nor do they care about other people’s suffering. Welcome to the 21st century of Egotistical bias conformity.

  • 95% of the pain patients in the US, who these meds are vital, as Nothing has been developed that holds a close second, pay for the well published 5% of abusers/diverters. No evidenced based research applies here. Research who wrote those guide lines adopted by the cdc. It will tell you what the press doesn’t

  • I cringe when I think of the ides that my mom who has severe back problems may have to live her daily life in pain as she does so now daily? With many of you that aren’t older and have no pain yet, it’s easy for us (the ones without pain) to say no one needs medications for their daily lives? People wonder how come there are those turning to heroin and things of that sort? I for one am not nor will I ever be (I pray) on pain medicine but I see my mom suffer daily in pain and there are many many things she just cannot do? Yoga would be a complete joke she can’t even get up and down on thes floor? I’ve seen my mom cry true tears in pain and sh’s a strong woman? I don’t condone those that definitely don’t need pain nedicines that they should have the right to even be perscribed at all? But people in the shape shch as my mom? Shame on those of you that want to totally do away with what those of them that do need them making it extremely hard on them? Yal are the knes to blame for many heroin over doses yourselves!!

    • Most of the people being, I should say needing, a pain drs are literally being shunned and treated in the most inhumane way right here in the U.S. Countless of those people can’t even find a Dr willing to treat chronic pain. Pain Patients are already treated like criminals, made to undergo a stringent protocol to begin with. They first have find the needle in the hay stack called a Pain Dr to treat them, which is next to impossible now. Most say, epidural then cutting you open, no marcotics- don’t even ask. Those who have morals and ethics evaluate each patient with factual information, previous therapies, scans, epidurals, PT, etc in order to see this is an ongoing issue. Then the patient must submit to drug testing at every appt and randomly (meaning Dr office calls and you drop what you are doing and get in there IMMEDIATELY to give a urine sample, swab, whatever they request.) Never mind if you have a job you need to be at or kids to care for. Then there is the national database to show every medical field what you have been precribed, when and by what Dr to completely cut out any chance of Dr shopping. A contract is signed saying you agree to submit to drug tests, use the same pharmacy (who refuses to ever have your medication in stock or agree to order it) and you’ll not see any other Dr for pain meds or you are immediately abolished by the clinic.
      Drs, nurses, minute clinics, insurance, and pharmacies have access to ALL this database information with a simple key stroke. Drs also only prescribe long term when everything else has been fully exhausted- PT, traction, over the counter meds, ice and heat, acupuncture, yoga, a head Dr sometimes even. That’s including surgery which often makes the pain that much worse, causing new problems while not correcting the original problem.
      Pain Drs have knowledge and expertise in pain. They know more about it than majority of physicians and they know what works and what doesn’t and what can be tried and they know their patients on a very personal basis. However, excellent pain management drs are now being threatened to have their license taken if they follow their oath to care for their patients. Instead they must make a choice, career or principle. That’s awful. Most Drs who went to many many years of schooling now only will do epidural or refer pt to an ortho Dr for surgery afraid of the governments big brother approach and their license being stripped from them. These Pain Management Drs are now eessentially reduced to a minute clinic P.A or Dr who treat minor, non serious, acute things- and again they specialize in PAIN MANAGEMENT.) Those pts who’ve been down that road and done every possible thing known to man. Those who’ve spent an absorbent cost to get well are literally treated like society’s trash now. They are refused care and treated as criminals for simply wanting a tolerable amount of pain, so they can still have a meaningful life and not become a burden on society. So, how does that make sense that the government is inhumane to them by making law abiding, good people suffer dibilitaing pain each and every day while continuing to take more and more of the medication, good drs and quality of life away from them? They are knowingly forcing them to seek other means to be well. People who would otherwise never be on the streets looking for narcotics to ease their pain. People are commuting suicide because they can’t physically stand the pain they live in each and every day. Instead of acknowledging that, they are limping them in with the addicts who OD on a cocktail of shit (crushing/scraping, snorting pills and ingesting any chemical they can find to get them high as a damn kite and comatose. Pain patients are not those people. Pain patients are your grandma, aunt, cousins, sister, child. This war on opiods is a common sense outcome- more street drugs, more actual criminals in your neighborhoods filling supply and demand. More crime and more death than anything we’ve ever seen. And those on long term pain meds are 1% when it become to becoming addicts if you actually do your research. To make that look astronomically higher, the CDC & DEA, even many sad so called Drs are putting known addicts into the equation to beef up the number to make the inhumane treatment of humans here in the U.S look justified. Those who happen to do a cocktail of drugs (pill form and street drugs with the intent of abusing them with the sole purpose of getting high out their freaking minds- who will use any means necessary, including pills they find, syrups, paint cans, alcohol, chemicals meant for peeling paint off cars in order to achieve their end goal of being high.) These people are NOT the typical and every day chronic pain patient. They are addicts with addict behavior, but 1% just doesn’t sound scary enough, so they must lump everyone together to demonize even the innocent and most vulnerable people who are just needing a Dr to help them live a happy, full life.. Not pain free. We know we’ll never achieve that, but so it’s bearable. How in the heck does our society demonize our loved ones who are in pain and need help like this? Meanwhile everyone speaks on this topic as it makes any kind of sense or is humane in any way to do to someone when we have the best medical science available to us. People stay naive, and calloused until this is a person in your own life you have to see suffer in great pain and whom are refused help by the best drs, best medical care and tossed out door after door. It’s inhumane. It is not what the oath Drs take is and people need to start speaking up for our more vulnerable citizens. This is shameful and frankly disturbing, disgusting and scary. If Trump, the DEA, CDC, Drs and those groups care so much for drug addicts, why are there not nearly enough rehab facilities afforded to them? Because they don’t care and they have no interest in actually helping addicts either.

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