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Justin Shamoun began to hate his body a few weeks into seventh grade. He was a year younger than his suburban Detroit classmates, having skipped a grade. Many of his peers were entering puberty, their bodies solidifying into sleek young men. Justin still had the doughy build of a boy. After gym class one day, someone told Justin he could probably run faster if he weren’t so fat.

The remark crushed him. Ashamed, he started hiding his body under ever-baggier clothes and making excuses to skip P.E., the pool, anywhere required to expose bare skin. Finally, he decided to fix himself. He dove headlong into sports and cut back on food. Before long, he was tossing his lunch into the garbage and picking at his dinner. He ate just enough to blunt his hunger, until the time came when he ate barely at all. The thought that he had an eating disorder never occurred to him.


Long considered an affliction of women, eating disorders — the most deadly of all mental illnesses — are increasingly affecting men. The National Eating Disorders Association predicts that 10 million American men alive today will be affected, but that number is only an estimate based on the limited research available. The official criteria for diagnosing eating disorders were updated to be more inclusive of men only in 2013. And last year, Australian researchers writing in the Journal of Eating Disorders noted that “the prevalence of extreme weight control behaviors, such as extreme dietary restriction and purging” may be increasing at a faster rate in men than women.

A generation ago, photos of half-naked, perfectly sculpted male bodies were largely confined to Calvin Klein underwear ads. Guys now have plenty of images to make them feel inadequate, as they are ever more exposed to a pop culture that celebrates athletes and superheroes with astoundingly chiseled physiques.

“The people you see on billboards and magazines and TV — it gave me something to compare myself to,” Shamoun said. “Every movie I watched, every singer. I could never be as successful as or look as good as ‘insert celebrity name here.’ ”

But many young men like Shamoun — bearing the double stigma of having a mental illness, and one classically categorized as female — insist they’re fine, not recognizing they’re sick or in need of help. Making matters worse, the medical profession itself has been slow to respond to the problem, too.


“Why do we not think that this is a male disease? Because even the academics aren’t bothering to put the time and effort into it,” said Andrew Walen, who became a therapist in Columbia, Md., after a 20-year battle with eating disorders. He pointed out that it took decades for women with eating disorders to emerge from shame and secrecy. Since men are only starting to come forward, “it could be 20 years before we see anybody really starting to speak up and say this is a problem that is epidemic.”

Women, of course, have been inundated with body pressures for decades — Twiggy debuted in the 1960s — but only recently have advocates succeeded in persuading at least some modeling agencies and magazines to feature a fuller range of the female form, and ban cover phrases like “bikini body” and “drop two sizes.” The objectification of men is newer and less pervasive, and less subject to soul searching, at least so far.

Consider that in late March, American Eagle released an ad featuring “real men” wearing the brand’s underwear. On April 1, the company announced that the whole thing had just been an April Fool’s joke to emphasize its pledge to stop retouching underwear ads.

Here’s another example: A version of this article was scheduled, and later dropped, by a men’s magazine.

Ads & body image
Men are increasingly exposed to images of astoundingly chiseled physiques that make them feel inadequate. Ross D. Franklin/AP

A vastly underestimated problem

Women have long belittled their natural shapes, forced to come of age in a society where thinness reigns. While still an issue, an analysis of 250 studies presented last August at the American Psychological Association meeting found that body dissatisfaction is falling among women, but not men, who are persistently feeling pressured to build muscle.

“We’ve set up a physical ideal that a lot of men can’t reach, and then told them they can reach it,” said Drew Anderson of the University at Albany. “And if they don’t, it’s somehow their fault.”

The most common statistic maintains that 10 percent of those who suffer from eating disorders are male, a number that has been used to push men to the margins, says Leigh Cohn, the editor of Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention. But he’s traced that passed-around figure to its source: an unscientific sampling at one clinic during the 1980s. Only now are mental health professionals starting to realize the degree to which they have vastly underestimated the problem, he said.

More than a decade ago, Cohn asked an auditorium full of eating-disorder specialists how many of them had male patients. He saw a scattering of hands. When he conducted the same informal poll in 2013 at the International Conference of Eating Disorders, he said, nearly every one of the 900 attendees raised a palm: “It was quite clear that over the period of about 10 years, clinicians went from a handful of people seeing males to almost everyone seeing males.”

One study, published in January 2014 in JAMA Pediatrics, reported that almost one boy in five from a national sample said he was “extremely” concerned about his weight, and not necessarily because he had any reason to be. Among teenagers and college-age men, 8 percent were engaging in unhealthy behaviors, even using steroids, to pack on muscle and lose fat.

Yet for the most part, treatment remains inherently female-focused. One example: An adult inpatient program in Dallas — established 22 years ago at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital — was until 2015 housed in a women’s building and could not take male patients at all.

This is not unusual. The Journal of Eating Disorders report noted that most programs are skewed toward women, and implored for change, saying, “it is vital that barriers to help-seeking, such as stigma, ignorance more generally, and female-centric services, are addressed.”

‘I wasn’t a stick-thin supermodel’

Despite the fact that they are marked by extremes in calorie consumption, eating disorders concern far more than food. They can arise from a need to take charge of circumstances that otherwise feel uncontrollable, and often develop as a means to try to heal from abuse, trauma or bullying. The fellow in the mirror is never attractive enough, or smart enough, or worthy enough to have a meal and work out at a normal level.

They can coexist with other conditions such as drug and alcohol addiction or depression. Eating disorders occur at any age, but tend to emerge in adolescence and young adulthood. The most common forms are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating, and for men, they are often accompanied by obsessive amounts of exercise to build muscle or burn calories.

“I was a guy who was super-athletic,” said Shamoun, who is now 23 and working at a New York City analytics firm. “I played soccer every day. I was running track and cross country,” he said. “I wasn’t a stick-thin supermodel.”

Many men diagnosed with eating disorders were once obese, and can’t stop fleeing from their former selves. Brian Cuban, a Dallas lawyer who battled bulimia for 25 years, grew up as a chunky kid who was chided and fat shamed. The problem began as a freshman desperate to fit in at Penn State.

“I would restrict, I would lose weight, and the affirmations came: ‘You’re looking great, Brian!’ I’m like, ‘Wow, okay, I’m accepted. I’m finally accepted.’ So I would restrict more,” he said. “No matter how thin I got, I still saw this fat, bullied little boy in the mirror. It wasn’t making me feel any better about myself.”

While girls still enter adolescence with greater appearance pressures, boys are increasingly presented with their own versions of Barbie. Far from the days of GI Joe, Justin Shamoun’s generation grew up playing with impossibly ripped action figures — even Luke and Han have the biceps of body builders — and wearing Halloween costumes that come padded with fake muscle.

The University at Albany’s Anderson said that traditionally, popular culture conveyed status and power in men through their possessions and the company of beautiful women. “At some point, we shifted that discussion from men of ‘Nice car, nice suit’ and that kind of stuff to, ‘You’ve got to have 5 percent body fat and a 45-inch chest.’ ”

GI Joe
G.I. Joe toys, for sale on a store shelf, have evolved into muscular action figures. Tim Boyle/Getty Images

Waking up to work out

Most men can take a mental inventory of everything they would like to improve without getting obsessed. Also, eating less and exercising more is an undoubtedly healthy way to grow stronger or lose a few pounds. In some men, though, probably owing to genetics, psychological distress or other reasons that aren’t understood, that desire for perfection becomes a fixation that dominates all else.

It starts to interfere with normal life: The guy who skips a best friend’s wedding because he doesn’t want to eat the banquet. Or who turns down a promotion because it might interfere with daily two-hour gym sessions.

Sometimes a man with an eating disorder will get up in the middle of the night to work out. A study presented at the American Psychological Association’s annual meeting in 2015 reported that about one-third of regular male gym-goers studied admitted to taking worrisome levels of bodybuilding supplements, some continuing even though they had developed kidney problems and their doctors advised them to stop.

“If you find yourself wanting to cut down, and not able to, that’s a sign that it’s problematic,” Anderson said. “You either can’t stop or are deathly afraid of what will happen to your body if you do stop: ‘I’ll lose all my muscle mass. I’ll get flabby. I’ll get soft. I’ll get scrawny again.’ ”

When Walen, the Maryland therapist, was trying to compensate for the uncontrollable urge to binge eat, he took up running. He ran so much he ground up the cartilage in his hips. “So I said, ‘Well, fine. Instead of being the smallest person, I’m going to be the most ripped person,’” Walen said.

He lifted weights compulsively and tore both rotator cuffs, requiring surgery to reconstruct both his shoulders. “And I continued to lift despite the intense pain. That’s the craziness of this disorder.”

Losing a grasp on logic

Growing up in Tulsa, Nate Nahmias plumped up in middle school, the inevitable consequence of a sedentary video-gaming life and side effects of a doctor’s prescription. He finally decided to do something about it, and restricted calories. By age 16, he was anorexic.

“I’d have this goal I’d want to weigh X amount, but in order to make sure that I didn’t break that goal and go the wrong way, I needed to kind of overshoot it a little bit,” he said. “And then overshooting just went to more and more and more and more, so I just kept dropping and dropping and dropping.”

A starving brain loses a grasp on logic. One now famous study took place at the University of Minnesota in the 1940s among 36 men who were conscientious objectors during World War II. For six months, they ate fewer than 1,800 calories a day, a level that reflected conditions in parts of war-torn Europe. They walked 22 miles each week.

Even though the calorie restriction was voluntary, the men developed symptoms often seen with eating disorders, such as depression and flirtations with suicide. Some lost the ability to think rationally; two were hospitalized for psychiatric concerns. One man cut off three of his fingers.

“I continued to lift despite the intense pain. That’s the craziness of this disorder.”

Andrew Walen, a Maryland therapist

on his former obsession with weight-lifting

As with the men in the starvation experiment, Nahmias lost the ability to reason. His mom took him to a nutritionist who warned them that his amount of body fat was dangerously low, and gave him a number. “She said that to me and I’m thinking in my head, ‘I want to be lower than that,’” he recalled.

Yet when Nahmias eventually tried to find help, “It was extremely, ridiculously hard,” he said, to find programs that would accept, much less had experience, treating men. Nahmias eventually traveled from Oklahoma to Wisconsin, where he spent two months in intensive treatment. Now 26, he’s a chemical engineer in Houston. “I still struggle every day to one degree or another,” he said, “but it’s manageable.”

When men do seek treatment, they have usually been in denial for so long “they are much, much sicker” than women, said Dr. Carrie McAdams, a psychiatrist at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and a physician at the Presbyterian treatment program. Some are transferred directly from the intensive care unit. They’ve often cycled through five or six doctors — one of McAdams’ patients had seen 12 — who because of their own misconceptions didn’t recognize their patients had an eating disorder.

One sad benefit of more men falling ill is that medical professionals are tuning in to the special considerations of men. The unit in Dallas, for instance, has treated about a half-dozen men since moving from the women’s hospital last year. The medical director, psychiatrist Jennifer Giampaolo, acknowledges that it can be hard for men, when even the flowers on the walls remind them that their disease is seen as feminine. She’s sympathetic, pointing out that femininity itself is often culturally equated with weakness, which might make treatment that much more complex.

Justin Shamoun
Shamoun in November 2016 Courtesy Justin Shamoun

Making peace with his flaws

Justin Shamoun suffered until his freshman year at Cornell University, when he was making himself throw up several times a day and his grades were plummeting from physical and mental exhaustion. Finally, his friends confronted him.

“I had for so long been able to keep up this façade that everything in my life was great, that to admit to them that it wasn’t was the last thing I ever wanted to do,” he said. At first he dismissed their concerns. “I was like, “I don’t have that.”

A doctor at the campus health clinic laid out the facts: The lining of Shamoun’s esophagus was deteriorating from the stomach acid. His teeth were rotting. He was in danger of a heart attack. Finally, the denial ended, and he entered treatment.

Today, he eats and exercises, but neither to extremes. He just completed his first New York City marathon. “I could never have done it when I was in high school, because I just did not have enough energy to run a full marathon,” he said. He has regained a strength he hasn’t known since childhood.

For seven years, he told himself that he needed to be perfect to be happy. By making peace with his flaws, he discovered the joy of being fully human.

  • Congratulations to “Food Addicts” comment I understand your frustration and success.

    I second that we can sometimes become addicted to certain food types and embrace social activity leading unexpected end results.

    I would like to also highlight the fact that is not only food addiction but also not realizing what type food, is good for each one of us.
    We are so unique and our bodies function in different ways, copying with daily activities, we might ignore huge internal or even external signs of unhealthily process and potential health impact.

    I had a food allergy causing external swelling/internal inflammation undiagnosed.
    25 years ago I went to see orthopedic and general doctors for a swollen foot an following a sunday extensive walk after a stairs fall. Both doctors objected to treat the condition indicating they did not not knowing what it was.

    I recently cure it and found out that by cutting dairy and wheat, the internal cellular acute imflamation disappeared.

    If I had known before, I would have cut the two culprits 20 or 25 years ago.
    For better or worse it’s our own body and there is no one that knows it better than each one of us. We reflect what we consume.

  • I am so grateful this is being talked about. It was hard for me to admit that I had a problem with food, but I began dieting at 10 yrs old and still reached 241lbs at 25. I then found a free 12-step program for food addiction (Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous) and have maintained an 80lb weight loss for over 7 years! I also found other people–including men–who have found relief from food and body obsession. I am so grateful to have freedom from food! If you want more information, you can google “Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous” and check out the website.

  • In my WeightWatchers group – men drop pounds so fast that any woman would envy. I’ve observed that if they make up their mind to change – they stick with it. I admire that. So any man with a eating disorder can reverse it quicker than I can!

  • Excellent article! If we as a society continue to believe that eating disorders are for women only, we ignore and neglect men who desperately need help. Where will these men get help if no one thinks they have a problem???

    • Very true, unfortunately it doesn’t just apply to eating disorders it applies to things like male domestic violence victims and male rape victims. Its the repeated notion that women can be victims / sufferers and men are always the perputrator or non-sufferer that hurts so many men.

  • Wow!
    Mike you bring good points up for consideration but I am not so sure about these coments – Doctors coming from the same class as many of these sufferers?

    If maybe some of the practitioner’s values would come in for criticism or rejection?

    In the striving middle classes, “health” is often defined as a dogged refusal to be content?

    Doctors might not come from the same class as the sufferers, yet they might experience either personally or through family membership similar unresolved issues.
    Makund Gnanasisikan makes a tremendously valid statement – “Way to recovery is not always pharmacological”
    If these words were to be taken siriously it would literarily start a revolutionary approach to healing individuals mind and body.
    In my humbled opinion, middle class has
    Educated and Non-Educated membership.
    “We are all engines executing to the code dictated by our genetic inherited and environmentally or otherwise (socially & self impacted) compromised carbon foot print.” “We are water & carbon”, we use carbon, we abuse carbon, we affect ourselves individually and socially world wide by means of our daily genetic, biochemical and social interactions.
    Then we want to not be held responsible?
    We certainty shall not be content and much less drag our structural supporting gorgeous feet. However, we are depending on pharma where our own responsibilities call for action weather fit for it or not. ?

  • Very much appreciate this overview, Ms. Beil. Do you know if the research into men’s eating disorders accounts for class as a correlation? It’s routinely cited as a contributing factor in the studies I’ve seen on eating disorders in women. The men profiled in your story sound like their female counterparts in that regard: goal-oriented middle-class boys growing up under steady expectations that they will succeed. They sound like boys who very early internalized the ethos of their social tribe: that only exceptional is good enough, and suffering through on one’s own is the only option.

    The evidence may not substantiate this impression, but it certainly looks like the norms of middle-class self-presentation give this managerial approach toward the body its perversity.

  • Let me throw out a famous name associated with fatal anorexia nervosa-Karen Carpenter. This male problem will come into the public conscience when an equally famous man dies from this affliction. Sorry, but that’s how things work in our society.

    • You are so right. The chances of that happening seem so small, however. I am consigned to die from this. I’m nowhere even close to being important enough to matter in that way. But i do want to make it my mission to bring awareness to the public that everyone, no matter the gender, race, socioeconomic class, can get anorexia. Imagine how frustrating and reinforcing it is to have a disease that tells you it’s your best friend, and in your brief moments of lucidity, you seek help, only to discover that your financial status or your gender or your age prevent you from getting the kind of help experts insist over and over it’s vital to have to get better. It’s no wonder the disease wins – it’s the only source of hope for so many who have fallen under the spell of the siren song of anorexia.

  • This has been recognized by mental health professionals dating back 15 or 16 years (see Katharine Phillips and Harrison Pope’s book, The Adonis Complex). Unfortunately, medicine as a whole is somewhat asleep at the switch when it comes to eating disorders and related issues, in part because the work of recovery isn’t usually pharmacological.

    • Very good point.

      Do you think some of medicine’s foot-dragging may be partly due to doctors coming from the same class as many of these sufferers? If the treatment indicates questioning one’s values and assumptions about belonging, success, etc., maybe some of the practitioner’s values would come in for criticism or rejection. In the striving middle classes, “health” is often defined as a dogged refusal to be content.

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