When Julia Cheek walked onto the set of “Shark Tank,” her five potential investors wore their trademark scowls. Yet within minutes, their demeanor changed, eyebrows raised and heads nodding as they peppered her with questions about her company, EverlyWell, and its promise to revolutionize medical diagnostics.

“EverlyWell is transforming lab testing — a $25 billion market — to be simple, convenient, and useful for you,” she told the judges with a smile. Beside her sat a display of the company’s wares: mail-order test kits for everything from testosterone levels to sexually transmitted infections.

When Cheek left the stage, she had a fresh $1 million commitment from investor Lori Greiner. And the company is wowing more than just the television judges. EverlyWell garnered $6 million in sales last year, a spokeswoman said, and Cheek told the judges that this year they expected that to double.

advertisement

But what EverlyWell describes as one of its best-sellers — a test for food sensitivity — is of dubious medical value, according to experts interviewed by STAT. The $199 test promises to use a fingerprick’s worth of blood to gauge whether a person’s immune system is active against 96 common foods, including asparagus, garlic, and eggs. An immune protein called immunoglobulin G, the company’s website says, could be to blame for symptoms such headaches, stomach pain, diarrhea, and fatigue.

Other online vendors sell immunoglobulin G tests for food sensitivity as well, though none have reached EverlyWell’s degree of prominence. All are considered laboratory-developed tests, and are therefore not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Yet physician groups have for years advised against using immunoglobulin G tests to evaluate for so-called food sensitivities or intolerances. And allergy experts told STAT that the test is useless at best and could even cause harm if it leads customers to unnecessarily cut nutritious foods from their diet.

“EverlyWell believes providing this test aligns with relevant third-party research around the [immunoglobulin G] test’s usefulness in conjunction with an elimination diet,” the company said in a statement.

To test or not to test

Food sensitivity is an umbrella term that encompasses symptoms that can arise, for example, from difficulty digesting a food, as in lactose intolerance, or susceptibility to the effect of a food, as in caffeine sensitivity. These symptoms, however, do not involve an immune response. (Food allergies, on the other hand, have more serious symptoms and are driven by the immune system; validated tests for them do exist.)

Patients who ask Dr. Robert Wood, an allergist at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, whether they have a food sensitivity would never undergo an immunoglobulin G test. Immunoglobulin G tests “are completely useless and do dramatic harm” because they may compel patients to unnecessarily avoid broad swaths of a healthy diet, Wood said.

“In all my years of practice, I have never sent an immunoglobulin G test because they have no ability to predict food sensitivity,” he said.

That’s because immunoglobulin G stems from the body’s normal immune response to exposure to many substances, including food. High levels don’t indicate a problem; they simply point to foods a person recently has eaten.

For these reasons, a 2008 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force recommended against testing for a type of immunoglobulin G to evaluate for food intolerance. In the report, the group wrote that the test was “irrelevant for the laboratory work-up of food allergy or intolerance and should not be performed in case of food-related complaints.”

In 2010, a subgroup of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, or AAAAI, endorsed this recommendation. And two years later, the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology too released a position statement discouraging the use of the test. The group noted that “positive test results … are to be expected in normal, healthy adults and children,” and that the test “increases the likelihood of false diagnoses … unnecessary dietary restrictions and decreased quality of life.”

A spokesperson for EverlyWell stated the company believes “there is a divergence of views regarding IgG tests,” and that the AAAAI does not speak for all health care providers. The company pointed to a handful of small studies that have showed immunoglobulin G helped guide elimination diets — that is, trials of cutting certain foods out of the diet and gauging symptom improvement.

“IgG tests are currently ordered by thousands of medical providers in the U.S.” the spokesperson said.

Dr. Martha Hartz, an allergist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., says she frequently evaluates patients who’ve already forked over the cash for the testing. “Anytime I see a patient who’s had these kinds of tests, we get them to toss it aside,” Hartz said. “It has no relevance to anything. It is just not a test that should done.”

EverlyWell Food Sensitivity Test
EverlyWell’s food sensitivity test uses a blood sample to look for immune system activity. EverlyWell

Booming industry, shaky science

EverlyWell’s test is just one entry to the booming field of at-home testing. Alongside players in the genetic space, such as 23andMe and Color Genomics, upstarts are taking aim at standard medical testing.

EverlyWell and competitors such as Thorne allow customers to take a small blood sample at home to run a variety of tests. Others offer a narrower range of products: Habit, for instance, focuses on nutrition; Blueprint for Athletes caters to fitness enthusiasts.

But in the sheer scope of its vision the most obvious analogue to EverlyWell is blood-testing startup Theranos, which also aimed to upend the laboratory testing industry. At one point the company soared to a $9 billion valuation on its direct-to-consumer lab tests. But investigations revealed that its proprietary blood testing technology was deeply flawed, leading to a number of lawsuits; the company now is reportedly pivoting to medical devices.

No shortcut

EverlyWell’s food sensitivity tests exploit a frustrating fact for those wondering whether their symptoms stem from the food they eat: There is no easy way to find an answer. The doctor-advised approach is to cut common offenders from the diet one by one — a so-called elimination diet — but that is cumbersome, time-consuming, and, by its very nature, restrictive.

“It is hard to remove certain foods from the American diet, and people may want a definitive way to know which foods cause symptoms without eliminating it,” said Dr. Christina Ciaccio, an allergist at the University of Chicago. “Unfortunately, such a test doesn’t exist.”

In addition, cutting out entire food groups carries risks such as malnutrition, particularly in children. (EverlyWell does not offer tests to anyone below the age of 18.)

And, though rare, symptoms such as bloating or headaches can be a sign of something more sinister, such as cancer. That’s why an elimination diet is best conducted under physician supervision.

When a person sees the doctor to learn about possible food intolerances, they’ll likely be irked to find that the cash they spent on food sensitivity testing ordered online or at an “alternative” practitioner’s office was money down the drain.

“Most patients in the end, when we have done our workup and come up with a plan,” Hartz said, “are actually quite frustrated that they spent all this money on a useless test.”

This story has been corrected to reflect the types of at-home blood tests offered by competitors. 

Leave a Comment

Please enter your name.
Please enter a comment.

  • As I read through the reviews, I was going to remain quiet. Until I started reading reviews which included Lyme Disease!!! I was diagnosed in 2010 after a bite from a Brown Recluse spider, along with the secondary “piggy-back” disease called, Anaplasmosis. STOP SAYING THAT LYME DISEASE IS ONLY FROM TICKS and that it is ONLY MANAGEABLE WITH MAN-MADE, FDA APPROVED CRAP!!! Very shortly after that diagnosis and being IV fed kick-butt antibiotics for 5 days that made me feel like I was being punched in the stomach, my weight started and continued to go up until I was (am) a full and painful 30 lbs overweight. When I say that this happened quite quickly, we’re talking within 3 weeks with NO dietary change!! Obviously I have had an incredibly hard time losing this weight. Everytime I asked my physician about this, she acted as if I were just being a typical vain woman as she would flippantly dismiss it into the, “age will do that” category!… while my mind was screaming, “Look at my chart woman, this is not normal!!!”
    As far as controlling my LDw/A?… I will tell you this, when I do not take my adequate amount of Vitamin D3, which has to be in a natural raw, vegan form, my joints will start to ache. But that’s the ONLY symptom I’ve had to deal with, aside from amping-up the digestive problems…which is why I am SERIOUSLY considering the purchase of this test!! I have had foods that cause such severe pain that goes from my stomach, ribs and back, that I am exhausted after it subsides. It felt like I had been hit with a baseball bat! I used to be able to have a relatively good handle on trigger foods, but then something I ate would prove me wrong again. What I do know is that bacon will set the pain off, as well as any form of an egg other than hard-boiled. Sugar (white refined) can usually set it off, but not always which is weird. Certain boxed breakfast cereals will too. Even the so-called healthy ones…but nit all. Sometimes a piece of pizza will and other times it won’t. I just want to know because the pain is exhausting!!! As I do get older, I find that my stomach has a constant underlying “raw” feeling to it, just waiting for something I eat to set off the pain again! (And yes, I’ve had my gallbladder checked as well as swollow the little camera being told to eat my known trigger foods, only to have no flare-up at all and looked at as if it’s all in my head)!!
    I too have had successes with my Dr. of Naturopathic practices! If I’m feeling like I have something worthy of an MD visit, I’ll diagnose with her and treat with my Dr. of Naturopath. Though I DO like and respect my MD and feel that both can work well together with a major illness!!
    My moto, through my own life’s experiences with 99.9% of my minor medical experiences, is that if it says, “FDA Approved”, use the utmost caution and/or just stay away from it!!!

  • Very disappointed. My children gave this to me for a gift for Mothers Day. I have a very severe allergy to garlic. Garlic produces a protein that produces side effects causing histamines in the intestines to be produced and causing one to have severe cramps, bloating and uncontrollable diarrhea with in a 15″ period of time. It did not show any severe allergy to garlic. They wasted their hard earned money for nothing. Results was totally incorrect for all foods ie: eggs, meats, fish,scallops, lobster all were incorrect. I can provide my #and would like my money returned. I have reported this to the FDA. A scam and SHARK TANK should be aware.!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Please contact me with a resolution.

    • I agree with you, it’s a scam! Or, at a minimum, deceitful marketing. Here’s the thing an average consumer like me doesn’t realize before spending the money…if you e already eliminated a good from your diet, this test could false positively tell you that you don’t have a sensitivity to it simply because you haven’t consumed it recently!

  • Eliminating foods that cause inflammation with any common sense, is NOT going to result in malnutrition, on the contrary, you will need to explore healthier food choices. The obvious slant of this article against testing is simply wrong. Traditional medicine is rooted in Pharm based-profit treatment rather than seeking the cause. This kind of testing eliminates the need for treatment because when you eliminate the cause you no longer need treatment. Can you see the obvious reason for the slant? No treatment, no profit. I speak and share from personal experience – the testing made a huge difference for me.

    • Agreed. While I haven’t taken this EverlyWell test as I like to read about both sides to an issue before spending money, the bias in this article is blatant. Western medicine – MDs and DOs – has failed me (and many others) over and over because 1. They immediately jump to prescribing medicine for SYMPTOMS, 2. They try to dissuade from further testing (this baffles my mind…what do they teach in medical school? That there’s no point in finding the source of the problem??), and 3. They downplay the VERY VALUABLE input from so called “alternative” practitioners. I’ve struggled with different issues for years. After going to regular doctors who were unable to think outside the box, I finally went to a holistic nutritionist (she did literally ONE very science/research-based test and we found SO much information AND at least two sources of my issues!). Why my docs couldn’t or wouldn’t think to do this test is so disappointing. Then I went for Manual Lymphatic Drainage… Also HUGE improvements. Western Medicine is not the end-all be-all. In fact, they get it wrong A LOT. Just because science hasn’t proved something (yet) doesn’t mean it’s not real. Again, this comment is not in regards to the above IgG test specifically, but the bias and pride Western medicine has is hugely dangerous because is accepted unequivocally as bible by most unsuspecting patients.

  • IgG is not a food sensitivity test. It measures only IgG levels which is how the IgG reacts to food. If someone has 1-2 items that are high it maybe they consume those items more. If they have over 40% high then they probably have an auto immune condition. I have worked with food sensitivity for 20 years and use a special blood test that is a white blood cell response to 170 foods and chemicals and then there is a specific dietary protocol to follow to repair the immune system. IgG is not food sensitivity; it only measures levels of IgG. Unfortunately we don’t know enough about IgG. Doctor’s use steroids to calm the immune system down or the new host of drug: such as Humeria or methotrexate; which do not help repair the issue.

A roundup of STAT’s top stories of the day in science and medicine

Privacy Policy