When her husband was dying of a drug-resistant infection, Steffanie Strathdee had a last-ditch idea. They could try treating him with a virus that would kill the bacteria colonizing his insides. The method, called phage therapy, was popular in former Soviet republics, but had mostly been abandoned in the U.S. Researchers had to hunt for the right virus in Texas pigsties and sewage treatment plants.

That was 2016. Phage therapy is still very much experimental — but it’s come a long way since then. New companies have popped up, hoping to get approval to sell these viruses as drugs. A phage directory has come together, lab by lab, helping doctors figure out who has which virus.

Now, the U.S. is getting its first phage therapy center, at the University of California, San Diego. Its mission is to run clinical trials, but also to streamline the mad dash to secure the right phage before a patient dies.


In some ways, the Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics simply gives a name — and $1.2 million — to an institute that already exists. After word got out that Strathdee and her husband’s doctors had managed to save his life with a bacteriophage — literally, a bacteria-eater — her inbox filled with pleas for a repeat performance. They came from all over: the U.S., the U.K., Australia, India, China, Albania. In almost every case, there was someone dying because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Viruses that had specifically evolved to kill those microbes might be able to help.

Sometimes, Strathdee and her network couldn’t act fast enough, and the patient died. But occasionally, it worked out. “I’ve had a second job as a phage-wrangler,” said Strathdee, who is the associate dean of global health sciences at UCSD, and who has been named a co-director of the new center. “When we started to treat patients, each one was like reinventing the wheel all over again: The phone calls at the 11th hour, the paperwork.”

Getting phage therapy to a patient can be a bit a puzzle. These viruses are picky about the microbes they feast on, so you often need to take a swab of the patient’s bacteria, nurture it in a dish, and then test which phages are able to kill it off. You need to make sure that the phages in question will explode a bacterial cell, rather than settling comfortably inside like lice on a kindergartener’s scalp. And then you need to purify it before delivery, so there aren’t any bacterial leftovers that might poison the person instead of saving them.

There’s also plenty of bureaucracy, because phages have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

It’s often a crazy rush to find the right phage with emails and calls and tweets, then getting emergency experimental approval — and that was largely what happened for the five other patients who’ve been treated with phages at UCSD since Strathdee’s husband was revived.

“We wanted to make it so it isn’t such a scramble,” said Dr. Robert “Chip” Schooley, an infectious disease specialist at UCSD, who administered the phage to Strathdee’s husband, and who is also co-director of the new center.

The announcement is also symbolic of a wider shift. With the rise of antibiotics in the 1930s and ’40s, phages went out of fashion in the U.S. But the person who had named them, a Canadian microbiologist named Felix d’Herelle, moved to Tbilisi, in the republic of Georgia, continuing his research at an institute that attracted the admiration of Joseph Stalin himself. Even after d’Herelle’s death, the Eliava Institute kept the flame of phage therapy alive.

That hardly helped the viruses’ reputation in America during the Cold War. “It was commie science; there was a taint to it,” explained Dr. William Summers, a phage biologist, historian, and professor emeritus at Yale University.

Even though phages continued to be an important part of lab science, the researchers who used them thought they were good for just that: research. The idea of using them for therapy was almost a joke.

Then, as antibiotic resistance grew into a worldwide crisis — one that kills some 23,000 Americans a year — that joke started sounding more and more appealing. The funding of a center to administer and collect data on phage therapy is a reversal, of sorts: An admission that this long-disparaged idea is worth a million-dollar second glance.

“Trust me, at the Eliava, we have tried to convince people that phages are a safe and good alternative to antibiotics for many years,” said Mzia Kutateladze, the director of the Eliava Institute. “Finally the people agreed to use it, and we are very happy, of course.” She estimated that Eliava’s phage therapy center gets around 15 to 20 Americans every year.

“There really is, thankfully, some momentum building … around these non-traditional therapies,” said Dr. Helen Boucher, an infectious disease specialist at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, who is not involved with the UCSD project. “I would think of this more in a high-risk, high-reward category. This is largely uncharted territory. … At the end of the day, if you have a product that can work against antibiotic-resistant organisms that isn’t antibiotics, that would be huge.”

The news that her brainchild had been funded took Strathdee by surprise in late May. She was at a ceremony for UCSD professors with endowed chairs, at which all of them received medals. “The chancellor’s literally putting the medal around my neck, and he said, ‘Hey, I just sent you some money today,’” she recalled.

The new center will collaborate with companies such as AmpliPhi Biosciences and Adaptive Phage Therapeutics to treat future patients. Some of them will have cystic fibrosis, which causes mucus in the lungs to be overly sticky, often allowing drug-resistant microbes to proliferate. Others might have long-term infections that are preventing them from getting organ transplants. Yet others will have implanted devices, which sometimes provide the nooks and crannies where bacteria can grow into a slimy film.

“The sad thing is that there is going to be no shortage of patients,” said Strathdee.

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  • What an amazing and important article this is. You have led me to find a possible treatment for my untreatable MRSA that I am literally dying of! Thank you!!!!! If you have any further info, please share! I an grateful to you Mr. Goodman.
    With kind regards, Cynthia Lachman

  • I am a 76 year old female living in Pickering Ontario.
    I am very, very active and still work as a Sr. Account Executive at a Incentive House.
    I picked up Urinary tract infection about 2 years ago. Which is called ESBL, which is e-Coli in the lower urinal tract.
    This due to having been given too many anti-bio tics for a bladder infection
    I have lived thru IV and the PICC numerous times (Ertapenem) and in between every week a sachet of Fosfomycin for preventative reason.
    After a while I had to give up Fosfomycin, too many side effects which were not pretty.
    I am going around and wonder when my next “D” arrives. (that is what I call my next attack).
    I wonder, do you accept Canadians, and what would the expense ratio amount to.
    Look forward to hearing from you.
    I have been very active traveling around the world for work for 40 years, this e-Coli ESBL has put a drastic stop to that. As U are probely aware, I can’t plan anything anymore.
    Thank You.

    Ingeborg Kool
    1200 The Esplanade N. #1012
    Pickering, Ontario, Canada
    L1V 6V3

    You could fine me on LinkedIn

  • The Polio virus has been medically injected into a cancer patient I know to fight bladder cancer. It was successful for 10 years, unfortunately the cancer has returned in a new area of the bladder 2018.

  • How can I get on list for a clinical trial? I have suffered from chronic UTI’s for 10 years. They go away, but return in very short time. Have started having adverse reaction to nearly every antibiotic used to treat them. I need alternate treatment & soon, I am sick all time, either with UTI, or illness associated with taking antibiotics. Please help. Thank you.

  • I am 82 years and have suffering with u t i infection for years..antibotics have failed to help, and since has turned into very painful I C and made everyday life miserable. I also have suffered from crohns which started first with two surgeries and I believe the two are connected . Phase theropy looks very hopeful.

  • Last year I had back surgery, ended up with a rare bacteria in back ( finegoldiamagna). Now I am on amox-clav875/125 for life to suppress the bacteria that went to metal in back, is this a Theraphy that would work to go off antibiotics?

  • I have disbiosis and gut fermentation and leaking gut about 6 years I stay low fat protain diet green veggies my stomach hurt every day .I like to find out about bacteriaphage therapy in us thank you

    • Hi Nadia
      There is a medical treatment that is quite new in humans. As it started in the Veterinary practice
      It is called Fetal Implants. Physicians use healthy feces from a healthy donor and implant them into the bowel of patient who is experiencing GI illnesses. This has showed excellent results in recovering the right micro flora in the gut of patients.It is highly successful. You would have to do a search on where it may be offered. Try to avoid GMO food as much as possible

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