When her husband was dying of a drug-resistant infection, Steffanie Strathdee had a last-ditch idea. They could try treating him with a virus that would kill the bacteria colonizing his insides. The method, called phage therapy, was popular in former Soviet republics, but had mostly been abandoned in the U.S. Researchers had to hunt for the right virus in Texas pigsties and sewage treatment plants.

That was 2016. Phage therapy is still very much experimental — but it’s come a long way since then. New companies have popped up, hoping to get approval to sell these viruses as drugs. A phage directory has come together, lab by lab, helping doctors figure out who has which virus.

Now, the U.S. is getting its first phage therapy center, at the University of California, San Diego. Its mission is to run clinical trials, but also to streamline the mad dash to secure the right phage before a patient dies.


In some ways, the Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics simply gives a name — and $1.2 million — to an institute that already exists. After word got out that Strathdee and her husband’s doctors had managed to save his life with a bacteriophage — literally, a bacteria-eater — her inbox filled with pleas for a repeat performance. They came from all over: the U.S., the U.K., Australia, India, China, Albania. In almost every case, there was someone dying because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Viruses that had specifically evolved to kill those microbes might be able to help.

Sometimes, Strathdee and her network couldn’t act fast enough, and the patient died. But occasionally, it worked out. “I’ve had a second job as a phage-wrangler,” said Strathdee, who is the associate dean of global health sciences at UCSD, and who has been named a co-director of the new center. “When we started to treat patients, each one was like reinventing the wheel all over again: The phone calls at the 11th hour, the paperwork.”

Getting phage therapy to a patient can be a bit a puzzle. These viruses are picky about the microbes they feast on, so you often need to take a swab of the patient’s bacteria, nurture it in a dish, and then test which phages are able to kill it off. You need to make sure that the phages in question will explode a bacterial cell, rather than settling comfortably inside like lice on a kindergartener’s scalp. And then you need to purify it before delivery, so there aren’t any bacterial leftovers that might poison the person instead of saving them.

There’s also plenty of bureaucracy, because phages have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

It’s often a crazy rush to find the right phage with emails and calls and tweets, then getting emergency experimental approval — and that was largely what happened for the five other patients who’ve been treated with phages at UCSD since Strathdee’s husband was revived.

“We wanted to make it so it isn’t such a scramble,” said Dr. Robert “Chip” Schooley, an infectious disease specialist at UCSD, who administered the phage to Strathdee’s husband, and who is also co-director of the new center.

The announcement is also symbolic of a wider shift. With the rise of antibiotics in the 1930s and ’40s, phages went out of fashion in the U.S. But the person who had named them, a Canadian microbiologist named Felix d’Herelle, moved to Tbilisi, in the republic of Georgia, continuing his research at an institute that attracted the admiration of Joseph Stalin himself. Even after d’Herelle’s death, the Eliava Institute kept the flame of phage therapy alive.

That hardly helped the viruses’ reputation in America during the Cold War. “It was commie science; there was a taint to it,” explained Dr. William Summers, a phage biologist, historian, and professor emeritus at Yale University.

Even though phages continued to be an important part of lab science, the researchers who used them thought they were good for just that: research. The idea of using them for therapy was almost a joke.

Then, as antibiotic resistance grew into a worldwide crisis — one that kills some 23,000 Americans a year — that joke started sounding more and more appealing. The funding of a center to administer and collect data on phage therapy is a reversal, of sorts: An admission that this long-disparaged idea is worth a million-dollar second glance.

“Trust me, at the Eliava, we have tried to convince people that phages are a safe and good alternative to antibiotics for many years,” said Mzia Kutateladze, the director of the Eliava Institute. “Finally the people agreed to use it, and we are very happy, of course.” She estimated that Eliava’s phage therapy center gets around 15 to 20 Americans every year.

“There really is, thankfully, some momentum building … around these non-traditional therapies,” said Dr. Helen Boucher, an infectious disease specialist at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, who is not involved with the UCSD project. “I would think of this more in a high-risk, high-reward category. This is largely uncharted territory. … At the end of the day, if you have a product that can work against antibiotic-resistant organisms that isn’t antibiotics, that would be huge.”

The news that her brainchild had been funded took Strathdee by surprise in late May. She was at a ceremony for UCSD professors with endowed chairs, at which all of them received medals. “The chancellor’s literally putting the medal around my neck, and he said, ‘Hey, I just sent you some money today,’” she recalled.

The new center will collaborate with companies such as AmpliPhi Biosciences and Adaptive Phage Therapeutics to treat future patients. Some of them will have cystic fibrosis, which causes mucus in the lungs to be overly sticky, often allowing drug-resistant microbes to proliferate. Others might have long-term infections that are preventing them from getting organ transplants. Yet others will have implanted devices, which sometimes provide the nooks and crannies where bacteria can grow into a slimy film.

“The sad thing is that there is going to be no shortage of patients,” said Strathdee.

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  • Hello, I seen this story on Facebook through a lyme group I’m in. So I decided to google phage therapy. However I see some are having trouble getting a response here. I looked up Stephanie Strathdee on Facebook and she has a page. Maybe you all can message her there and get a response!

  • I recently delveloped a rare lung disease with chronic bronchitis, having continent coughing with a sticky thick overproductive mucus and mucus that is infected in my throat and lungs and I’m antibiotic resistant…. how can I sign up for phage treatment … I’m sure this would help me and I’m sure this has something to do with my immune system as well … please I need help !

  • Do you think phag-therapy would be helpful for those with MAC it is frequently resistant to antibodies. There are many serious side effects to treatment. Do you think this treatment could be helpful to a asymptotic individual? The MAC can be found through spectrum test and evident in CAT scans.
    I see many patients for psychotherapy who have various infections, all non contagious but they have chronic conditions COPD, various lung infections. Etc…

    • I have Mac. It took me 18 years to find out what it was. I am on anitbiotics most of the time. The only one that seemed to work was azithromycin. I was on 250 now I take 2 a day. Have you found any other drug that works?

  • Would Phage therapy be helpful in Lyme Disease? I am very interested in this. I have had Lyme most of my life, with bouts of dibilitating pain. Thanks in advance for your response

    • Hi there…I’ve been reading the phage literature and am asking the same Q: can this therapy help Lyme disease patients. My daughter has Neuro-Lyme plus many co-infections and the antibiotic treatment has left her GI tract inflamed. Did you get any answers to your question? Sherry

  • I had sinus surgery which left me with Pseudomonas infection which I was on anabiotic‘s for 4 months. had surgery again more anabiotic’s an steroids. Can’t get rid of it it’s killing me I need help can You help me .

    • I have the same condition would you please contact me maybe we can help each other thanks Nick Garritano 386-295-1041

    • Drs tell me there is no way to kill psuedanomas. I was reading about the phage treatment and think it would kill it. But US doesn’t accept it as treatment. I went to Dr Steven O’Mara the last time and he found my immune system doesn’t work. So now I’m going to to Washington University in STL for immunology.

    • Nick have you heard anything from them? I don’t see where anyone hears anything?

    • Look into the Phage Therapy Center and the Eliava Phage Therapy Center both in the country of Georgia. They do have phages for bacteria that don’t respond to antibiotics, like MRSA.

  • How can a person get a chance for this treatment? I have recurring pseudonomas in my upper left sinus. I have 4 IV treatment with cefepine but it still returns .
    Please consider me for the phage treatment…
    Victoria Chandler
    727 Boy Scout Road
    Quincy I’ll 62305

    • Phage Therapy is successful when used to kill Pseudomonas A. I have researched many medical studies online bec. I am trying to find a cure for my dog who has resistant bacteria to even a very special and costly antibiotic- Australia. The Pharma people don’t see any profit bec. of the long development and clinical trials they would have to go thru. If anyone has any info re: Phage Therapy for Pseudomonas infect. please rsvp here

  • I was diagnosed with SIBO a few years ago and have taken numerous rounds of antibiotics. I also have tried different diets and supplements. My wife and I are always looking for other possibilities. Would phage therapy be a possibility?

    • Hi James I also have sibo and I also have taken numerous rounds of antibiotics with no success! It’s a horrible disease, and I was wandering if you have had any success in ridding sibo from your body? And if so how? I Was wandering about phage therapy for a cure and if you have gone down that road? And if so have you any recommendations, resources or institutions phone numbers or names that might help me? Thanks so much Rick

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