Skip to Main Content

Opioid use disorder, which claims 115 lives a day by overdose in the United States, is a complex, chronic medical condition, but one that can be successfully treated with proven medications. And yet, one of the oldest and most effective medications to treat this disorder — methadone — is out of reach for many people, largely due to outdated federal laws.

Of the three medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat opioid use disorder, federal law relegates only methadone to be dispensed in separate clinics apart from the general health care system. It’s not unusual for methadone clinics to be in out-of-the-way locations and often inaccessible by public transportation, especially in rural and suburban communities. When individuals trying to break an addiction to opioids can’t get to a methadone clinic on a daily basis, they can’t get treatment.

The other two federally approved medications, buprenorphine and naltrexone, can be prescribed and administered in primary care settings, where treatment can take place as part of an overall clinical care plan.


Methadone is typically taken daily in a highly structured setting, an approach that benefits many patients. But methadone should be treated no differently than other FDA-approved medications for opioid use disorder. As we write in the New England Journal of Medicine, it’s time for Congress to remove this barrier to treatment and allow methadone to be prescribed in primary care settings, as well as in existing standalone clinics.

Only about 20 percent of Americans who have an opioid use disorder are being treated with buprenorphine, naltrexone, or methadone, a woefully small percentage that shows the extent of the barriers to treatment that we need to remove to stop this public health crisis. Restricting the availability of methadone to designated clinics has contributed to this treatment gap.


Methadone has been available by prescription in primary care clinics in Canada since 1963, in Great Britain since 1968, and in Australia since 1970. In these places, methadone is the most commonly prescribed treatment for opioid use disorder, and it isn’t controversial because it has been shown to benefit the patient, the care team, and the community.

Methadone works. In a 2017 review of all causes of death among people with opioid use disorder, those receiving this medication were one-third less likely to have died during the study period than those not treated with methadone.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid that reduces cravings and withdrawal symptoms for heroin and other opioids. Developed in 1937 as a pain medication, it was first studied as a treatment for heroin addiction in New York City in the 1960s.

By the 1970s, the system for delivering methadone that we know today had been fully developed. Patients visit a designated clinic, typically every day, take methadone under observation, and get specialized, highly structured care, including counseling and periodic drug tests.

The methadone clinic model was carved into law in the United States in 1974, when Congress passed the Narcotic Addiction Treatment Act. The regulations around methadone, driven by fears of accidental overdose and diversion, evolved in such a way that primary care physicians almost never delivered methadone treatment. Stigma and a not-in-my-backyard mentality resulted in the placement of a sizable number of methadone clinics in locations that were hard for many to reach.

The last time Congress expanded access to medication for opioid use disorder in primary care was when it passed the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000. It allowed physicians to prescribe and administer buprenorphine in their offices, making this medication more available to thousands of patients. But the barriers to the delivery of methadone remain intact.

Methadone has saved many lives and could save many more. Several studies have shown that methadone treatment in a primary care setting is both feasible and successful. In rare cases, it has been allowed in primary care offices. Our experience in Boston over a 10-year period with a limited number of patients who received methadone treatment in a primary care setting after being stable in a methadone clinic was excellent, with no adverse incidents.

We call on Congress to allow methadone treatment to be delivered in primary care settings, as well as through special methadone clinics. That would be just the beginning. We also need to enhance physician training about opioid use disorder, create incentives for prescribing medications to treat it, and integrate treatment into existing models of care.

From the federal government down to community partners, we are all desperately searching for solutions to stem the opioid epidemic. Increasing the availability of medications that can effectively treat opioid use disorder — including methadone — will be essential if we are to succeed in saving lives.

Jeffrey Samet, M.D., is the chief of general internal medicine at Boston Medical Center and a professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine. Michael Botticelli is the executive director of the Grayken Center for Addiction at Boston Medical Center. Monica Bharel, M.D., is the commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

  • I go to a methadone clinic in wichita ks and with this virus going around they are talking about closeing the clinic. What are we suppose to do? I can see alot of ODS because of people going out on the street to get what they need so they aint sick. I hope and pray that this doesn’t happen.

  • Id do anything to not have to go to the clinic everyday. Been clean 6 yrs and its a hinderance going to a clinic, i feel like the way im treated is counterintuitive and now with all these caronvirus scares what happens if MA gets quarantined? If i had a script id be golden but im told id have to just try a hospital or be sick or get well however you can. Great.

  • im 35 , in ky , i used oxycodone ( 40Mg ER Oxyxontin , then 30-20mg Ir Oxy) all used illicitly (for pain cuz i didnt have health insurance) and god i had no idea what i ot my self into, i was up to taking 6-7 30mg OXY IRs in a 24hr period (couldn’t sleep cuz of pain) pain would creap at bed time so said F-it, took a pill and could fall asleep after oxy kept me awake 24 hours every other day, up to 24h, sleep for 8-12 (no Oxy) up for anoterh 24hr o oxy.. was my pattern. now i tried to quit and on 120mg of red (cherry) methadone at clinic in Nky .covinton /nkymed. but for 4 yrs iv been there, i still dont feel right, i have 110% more pain,, i keep getting sores on my arms. legs. i sweat/ or have chills, (sweating is the worst, chills are minor but can handle the chills) and i dont think its wd.. and i always want to sleep.. or ill be on my computer / playing a game and ill just “fall out” or Nod off trying to play my game on my computer. i cant do this, iv never felt this on oxy. Never . never got these weird sores eitehr on Oxycodone, I may have issues taking methadone ?

  • To Tim, 40 mgs is why they may cheat. I may not need a dose above 100, but 40 milligrams will not hold most IV users well enough to stop cravings. After the physical pain has eased, it is the dreaded cravings and dis-ease that sneak up on many of us will causes a relapse. It is a tough battle no matter how you look at it in our minds! 40 mgs. is not recommended for long time users, it is usually more, especially at the start of recovery. But you can make it! I am 24 years of making it! It is an amazingly better way of life! And I was just about as far down as one can go in heroin addiction.

Comments are closed.