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How old were you when CRISPR first showed up in print? And what were your grandparents doing when the word DNA made its first appearance?

Now you can find out. Merriam-Webster has been promoting a search tool that lets you look up the words that made their first known appearance in print in the year you were born, or any other year dating all the way back to 1500. (Incidentally, the word illness showed up that year.)

We at STAT decided to scour Merriam-Webster’s trove for some of the most important words that have shaped science in the past century. Taken as a whole, the list is a revealing lens through which to understand the history of science and biotech.


Here are the words that stood out to us, going back more than a century:


Sorry — initial coin offerings are a biotech thing now. ICOs look an awful lot like IPOs, except people buy “tokens” of a cryptocurrency held on a blockchain rather than stocks. (The SEC, naturally, has something to say about that.) In February, one announced it would seek $19 million from such an offering to develop an incubator for babies born via C-section.



Blockchain: The technology that underlies transactions of cryptocurrencies and has since been adopted by biotech entrepreneurs hoping it can help people understand their genomes and uncover treatments for diseases.


Anti-vaxxer: A decade after the British physician Andrew Wakefield’s now-retracted study positing a link between vaccines and autism, this became an easy shorthand for people who oppose policies encouraging or mandating vaccines or espouse false claims about vaccine safety.


Exome: a portmanteau of exon (a segment of DNA that codes for a protein) and genome (the entirety of an organism’s DNA), it was coined by DNA sequencing pioneer J. Craig Venter and colleagues to mean all the protein-coding regions of the genome — which is much easier to sequence than the whole genome.


Pre-exposure prophylaxis, short for PrEP: The HIV prevention treatment made its first appearance in print a year after Gilead Sciences synthesized the pill. It has changed the approach to curbing rates of HIV in high-risk groups.


Electronic cigarette: Although e-cigarettes first showed up in print this year, another 13 years passed before the FDA issued sweeping regulations for the increasingly popular devices.


CRISPR, short for clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats: When this bacterial immune system was discovered in the early 1990s, it was named “short regularly spaced repeats,” or SRSRs, a moniker that likely would not have propelled the genome-editing system to the global fame that it’s achieved.


Tadalafil: This medicine is better known by its brand name, Cialis. The drug was approved by the FDA in 2003 to treat erectile dysfunction, becoming the third treatment for the condition on the U.S. market.


RNAi, short for RNA interference: The term made its first appearance in print the same year that researchers identified the technique to silence disease-causing genes — research that would later win a Nobel Prize. In 2002, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals was founded in Cambridge, Mass., and this past summer won the first FDA approval for the first drug relying on the technique.


Pharma: We’re scratching our heads — why did this abbreviation for pharmaceutical companies show up in print so late?


SSRI, short for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Four years earlier, Prozac was approved as the first in this class of antidepressants. These drugs would go on to transform the treatment of psychiatric conditions, but not without controversy around side effects and overprescribing.


Beta-amyloid: That’s the protein that makes up the sticky brain plaques that characterize Alzheimer’s disease. The idea that you can treat the disease by clearing out those plaques remains the subject of fiery debate to this day.


Statin: It’s the common suffix of a class of drugs that work by blocking the production of bad cholesterol, a group that includes the blockbuster atorvastatin, sold as Lipitor. Now generic, statins changed the standard of care for heart disease on the way to becoming some of the most lucrative products in pharmaceutical history.


AIDS: That year, scientists found themselves mystified by a terrifying disease that was beginning to spread among gay men, heroin users, and hemophilia patients. The next year, the HIV virus was identified as the culprit.


Tumor necrosis factor: Perhaps the most valuable protein in the human body, tumor necrosis factor plays a role in the inflammatory process. Drugs like Humira and Enbrel work by targeting the protein and are used to treat diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, generating hundreds of billions of dollars around the world.


The world’s first baby conceived after in vitro fertilization was only born in 1978 — but this word’s relatively early arrival might be explained by the years of failures that preceded her birth. One Australian team, for example, published its attempt in 1973 in the Lancet. These days, the procedure is so common that egg freezing — with an eye toward future IVF procedures — is sometimes offered to women in their 20s.


Data mining: The biotech industry hadn’t even been born yet, but someone already figured out a way to spin failed clinical trials.


Biotech: Short for biotechnology, it’s the discipline that came about once scientists figured out how to clone DNA, giving rise to a scientific revolution and seeding a multibillion-dollar industry in pharmaceuticals and agriculture.


Antirejection: It took 10 years after the first successful organ transplant for this word to be used in this context — that is, to the medications that people take after such surgeries. Experiments to determine which drugs should be used continued into the early 1960s.


Animal model: The term arrived at a time when lab animals began to play an increasingly critical role in biomedical research. Today, lab rats, mice, and zebrafish continue to remind us that what works in mice doesn’t always work in humans.

Artificial intelligence: More than 60 years after it made its first print appearance, the concept has taken hold in medicine. Researchers and clinicians are hoping to use artificial intelligence to help diagnose disease, guide treatment decisions, and forecast epidemics.


Epigenetics: A British geneticist coined the term, to define “the causal interactions between genes and their products, which bring the phenotype into being.” Today, there’s booming research interest into the on and off switches in our DNA.


Deoxyribonucleic acid: It would take another 15 years before James Watson and Francis Crick identified DNA’s molecular structure and set into motion the genetics era. Incidentally, an archaic spelling of our genetic code, desoxyribonucleic acid, made its first appearance in print in 1931. But the abbreviation DNA didn’t make it into print until 1944.


Postdoctoral: At a time when the modern university was taking shape, there emerged a new breed of researchers, fresh out of their Ph.D.s and looking for a job. In the past century, they’ve become the engines powering academic labs. They’re doing some cool work.


Antiflu: This word arrived the same year that a flu pandemic killed millions of people around the globe.


Gene: The term was first used in print at a time of growing interest in Gregor Mendel’s experiments on pea plants conducted in the 1860s. But it would take decades more for the study of genetics to take off in a real way.

Let us know in the comments if we left out the birthdays of any of your favorite words in science.

Sharon Begley, Kate Sheridan, Megan Thielking, Andrew Joseph, Adam Feuerstein, and Damian Garde contributed reporting.

Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly described Merriam-Webster’s search tool. The tool shows the first known years when certain words were used in print, not when they were added to the dictionary, which usually takes longer.

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