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Cancer therapies should shrink tumors. Diabetes treatments ought to lower blood sugar. But what should society expect from drugs for sexual desire?

In the coming days, the Food and Drug Administration will decide whether to approve an injection meant to increase women’s drive for sex. Its demonstrated effects are modest, but some doctors say the drug would meet a real need for thousands of women. Others, however, argue it is simply pharmaceutical overreach, another effort that reduces the complexity of human sexuality to a set of measurable dots on a chart.


“It’s a mismatch of models,” said Leonore Tiefer, a sex therapist who previously ran the sex and gender clinic at New York’s Montefiore Medical Center. “They want the car repair model: ‘Hello, doctor, I’ve got this carburetor that doesn’t work in my car. Could you fix it for me without talking to me?’ It’s laughable.”

The drug, bremelanotide, is an on-demand therapy for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, or HSDD, which is defined as a distressing loss of interest in sex. And its Massachusetts-based manufacturer, AMAG Pharmaceuticals, hopes the drug can do for sexual desire what Viagra did for erectile dysfunction. It could win FDA approval as early as Friday.

There’s already a marketed treatment for HSDD in the form of a pill called Addyi, a drug whose 2015 FDA approval came with intense debate over whether sexual desire was indeed a medical issue. Addyi has since become a commercial nonentity, in large part because women are restricted from drinking alcohol before taking it. The controversy around the drug’s approval faded along with its meager sales.


But bremelanotide, which promises a similar effect with fewer side effects, has rekindled the conversation around whether sexual desire can be a matter of pharmaceutical science.

Dr. Sharon Parish, who practices sexual medicine at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, said the debate over HSDD is “an old argument that there’s no point in having anymore.” Regardless of the semiotics of female sexuality, there are women in the real world suffering distress from a lack of desire, Parish said. To deny them drugs that might help is to ignore their lived experience and minimize their pain, she said.

“Lighting a candle and having a glass of wine isn’t helpful for these women, just as going to see a funny movie isn’t helpful for someone who’s depressed,” said Parish, who has served as a paid adviser to AMAG.

Skeptics of drugs like Addyi and bremelanotide argue that they’re not dismissing the distress that comes with conditions like HSDD; they’re taking it seriously by acknowledging the nuances of human sexuality.

To Emily Nagoski, a sex educator and author, prescribing drugs for desire runs the risk of pathologizing normal sexual function. What women diagnosed with HSDD need “is not medical treatment, but a thoughtful exploration of what creates desire between them and their partners,” Nagoski wrote in the New York Times before Addyi’s approval.

To Tiefer, sexuality is best understood through what she calls the dancing model. Dancing, like sex, requires a having body, but no one would study the art of ballet by cracking open Gray’s Anatomy. So why, Tiefer asks, would anyone isolate the biology of sex at the expense of its other facets?  

“Sex is a construct,” Tiefer said. “There’s a body — a penis, a vagina, a circulatory system. And then there’s relationships, people, marriage. But there’s really no such thing as ‘sex.’”

AMAG’s approach to the biology of sex begins in the brain. Desire, the company argues, is governed by a compromise between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Women with HSDD are imbalanced toward inhibition. Bremelanotide, which targets an excitatory receptor called melanocortin 4, is meant to even things out, improving desire and reducing distress.

The drug, self-administered through a tiny needle that goes under the skin, met its goals in a pair of clinical trials involving more than 1,200 women. At the median, bremelanotide decreased distress by one point from baseline on a four-point scale. The results in desire were smaller, with the median patient seeing an improvement of just .6 from baseline on a scale that ranges from 1.2 to 6.

AMAG, which licensed bremelanotide from Palatin Technologies in 2017, argues that such an improvement is enough to spell a real benefit for women with HSDD. The scale comes from a questionnaire that asks women how often and how intensely they want to have sex. AMAG’s goal was never to maximize scores, Chief Medical Officer Dr. Julie Krop said, but to move the needle such that each woman might return to her own definition of normalcy.

“We’re not trying to prescribe a one-size-fits-all desire,” Krop said. “It’s about empowering women to have the choice and the ability to restore their desire where they think it’s been robbed.”

The distress of HSDD can overburden relationships and spill over into the workplace, said Dr. Sheryl Kingsberg, chief of behavioral medicine at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center. Even a seemingly marginal benefit can have outsized impacts on women’s quality of life, she said.

“While it may look sort of modest to a statistician or to a layperson, it is meaningful to my patients,” said Kingsberg, who has led studies of bremelanotide and served as a paid adviser to AMAG.

But finding the women who might benefit from bremelanotide will likely be a challenge, AMAG acknowledges.

HSDD is a diagnosis of exclusion. A woman must perceive her sexual desire to have diminished, and she must consider that change to be distressing. But for her condition to be HSDD, a doctor must rule out every other possible cause of her waning sex drive, whether it be a relationship problem, the side effects of another medicine, or the lasting impact of a surgery.

That’s largely why Wall Street has taken a dim view of bremelanotide’s commercial future.

Addyi’s failure looms in the minds of investors. That drug, marketed by Sprout Therapeutics, has seen its sales fall by more than 90% since its 2015 approval, according to the drug industry research firm IQVIA.

Addyi’s biggest barrier to success was an FDA-imposed restriction on women drinking alcohol before taking the drug, according to analysts. Bremelanotide shouldn’t have that issue, according to SVB Leerink analyst Ami Fadia, but it’s still unlikely to bring in outsized revenue for AMAG.

Women might balk at the idea of reaching for an injector pen before sex, Fadia said. And while there are roughly 5 million women in the U.S. who could be candidates for bremelanotide, “the more difficult question to answer is what percentage of those women are really seeking treatment,” she said. “That’s where the numbers can start to get very small.”

Krop, AMAG’s head doctor, knows the company has work to do when it comes to educating women and their doctors about HSDD. The company built a website called that serves as “a place for women to speak up and get answers about low sexual desire that frustrates us,” according to its homepage. Included are video testimonials, animated GIFs, and a quiz promising to tell women whether they have the symptoms of HSDD.

Kingsberg, who practices clinical psychology, said she hopes the future of female sexual dysfunction mirrors the recent history of depression. Doctors once looked at depression as a psychosomatic disorder, outside the reach of medicine. The advent of drugs like Prozac gave them something to prescribe, Kingsberg said, transforming diagnosis and treatment in the process.  

“HSDD is exactly the same,” she said. “Women suffer in silence not knowing that it’s a condition that is real — and that is treatable.”

  • I’m sorry, Ms. Tiefer. Your comments are part of the problem. More than 25 drugs for MALE sexual dysfunction and 2 for women? Our sexual desire is hugely bio-chemical. Some of it is psychological and socio-cultural – but the largest part of it is bio-chemical. As a patient of cancer, can you imagine my frustration with people telling me to clear my limiting beliefs – the beliefs they believed caused cancer – so I could “really heal?” If a woman feels she has HSDD, she needs thorough biological testing FIRST. If no issue can be found in the brain scans and hormone blood work which determine the disorder, then other approaches can be made. Maybe you haven’t suffered from a biological loss of desire? You are hurting this cause and continuing to keep women from the treatment they need… the treatment that men can easily access. It’s a continued insult – mostly from male gynecologists and “sex therapists with theories.” The women gynecologists I know have been very sad and frustrated not having ANY workable options for their HSDD clients. Many continuous and unpleasant physical conditions, including depression, are primarily biochemical. And I am a believer in treating the whole person – but the “whole person” should have full range to choose their own course of treatment without biased theory that just makes them feel even more guilty and ashamed.

  • It is so real. I married my amazing husband 7 years ago and wanted him daily. Then I had a hysterectomy and my libo just ended, completely. I felt guilty and frustrated that my husband wanted me, but I just didn’t want to be touched. It was really amazing to realize how much of who I believed my self to be was wrapped up in my hormones, or lack there of. I tried Addyi and it worked!! until my blood pressure would drop so low that it was scary. So I am excited to give Vyleesi a try. I had my appointment with the doctor today and was approved.

  • My sex drive and sexual desire have always been on the low end of the spectrum. Late teens throughout my twenties, I would rank it at maybe a 2, what I would consider my “baseline” number. By around my mid-thirties when I began going through the perimenopausal stage, I would rank my sex drive at a 1. Now, 3 years into menopause, it’s at 0, absolutely no desire whatsoever. Most of the time, I don’t even want to be touched. Sex literally disgusts me.

    My whole life I felt as if “something must be wrong with me” due to my lack of desire versus this cultural “norm” that seems to suggest women should want sex as much as men. Of course, it also didn’t help that all three long-term relationships I’ve had in my adult life (including my 7 year marriage) were with men who had much higher sex drives than my own. In each of these relationships, I thought I did a pretty good job at compromise given my low sex drive; yet no compromise was ever “good enough” for any of them. My lack of desire was ultimately what ended each of my relationships.

    There are other complications in my life experiences that I’m certain influenced my sexual identity — a religious upbringing that raised women to believe they are subservient to men; 2 rapes in 1998 (2 separate incidents, 4 months apart; the first by 2, maybe 3, strangers that eventually led to my divorce and losing custody of my first son and the second by a coworker that ended in having to give a child up for adoption and having surgery to remove the warts caused by an STI that he gave me); chronic fatigue that began during puberty — just to name a few.

    I say all of that to bring up a point that I worry drugs like Addyi may end up being used by women who are being coerced and pressured by significant others to conform to their expectations of sex. Sure, this drug may be beneficial for those who actually “want” it and “want” to return to their “normal” sex drives; but it’s a slippery slope when there are soooo many reasons why our sexual desire may be waning in the first place.

    It’s important to remind women: It’s okay to not want sex just as much as it is okay to actually want it.

    • I really like your comment Patricia. Yes, these are issues that have various psychological causes (that may or may not be addressed using psychological interventions), and even if someone doesn’t want it to be different, that is ok too…

  • I think Ms. Tiefer’s comments come from a lack of understanding of what real HSDD is really about. I used to be very sexually active since the age of 14 until 48 and there were no “reasons” that could inhibit that. HSDD came fairly suddenly with the advent of menopause and no other “reasons”. The hormonal correlation was so marked that, during perimenopause, I knew ahead of time which months I would have my period based on my sexual desire. It is more simple that many want to believe. The HSDD we are talking about in here is a biological phenomenon, not a psychological one, and as such, it needs a biological approach to management. I understand Ms. Tiefer may have patients that have psychological issues leading low libido but we are not talking about them in here. Ms Tiefer’s comments are damaging for women like us by putting us together with the cohort of patients who would likely not benefit from drugs that would augment sexual desire.
    On the other hand, stating that loss of sexual desire is a normal part of aging and question whether it is medical condition is equivalent than saying that loss of cognitive function or muscle weakness leading to gait instability or atherosclerosis leading to ischemic heart disease also are, and do not merit medical management but just “acceptance”. Nobody would be questioning if a loss of function such as walking or male erectile disorder are medical problems. There is no difference with HSDD. Aside from gender-related dismissal, acknowledging HSDD as a medical problem would entail the responsibility of coverage by medical insurance. I think this is likely an important driver in the current discussion around HSDD.
    I wish researchers were looking into hormonal delivery that would mimic a woman’s natural pattern, including the pulsatile release. Little is known about “bio-identical” HRT and most out there selling it are quacks. Why aren’t gynecologists more knowledgeable about these options?
    All that being said, a 0.6 point average increase over placebo sounds pretty underwhelming…

  • I definitely have HSDD. I have been searching and doing things people who have said certain things might help. But I have found no success. I am happily married but my sexual drive has left the building and I cannot find it. Please help. I went from having sex 2 to 3 times a day to 0. Nothing, nada. It’s so frustrating for me.

  • What is the big biased overblown hold-up here? Why can’t a woman simply take a drug just the same as men take viagra, if she wants to improve her sex life? Unlike men, women first must have all sorts o “reasons” investigated??? Ridiculous !!!!! Further research should be done, fast, so for women the drug is also in pill-format, just like for men !!!!!

  • If it works, it would be due to ‘expectations’ (i.e., the placebo effect). The placebo effect can be very powerful, where the name of the medicine, the color, the smell etc., can influence its effectiveness for different health conditions – see the article titled “The Placebo Effect, Digested – 10 Amazing Findings” (published in the BPS Research Digest).

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