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In his writings, Gary Marcus is clear about two things: Artificial intelligence is an extremely promising technology that, if used in the right way, could significantly improve practices in health care and other industries. But right now, Marcus says, AI is getting off track, with potentially severe consequences for society and the field itself.

That viewpoint makes Marcus — a tech entrepreneur, author, and psychology professor at New York University — a controversial figure in the world of artificial intelligence. He is among a few prominent scientists voicing skepticism about the dominance of deep learning, a type of AI architecture whose use has exploded in medicine and other fields.

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