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For the last nine months, my team of anthropologists and I have been asking people across the United States to tell us their experiences of living during a global pandemic. We have seen a dangerous theme emerge: the belief that dangers of the virus come from strangers and that friendship and family ties can cancel contagion. Though logical, these interpretations of biology are wrong — sometimes dead wrong.

Stories help people make sense of a world in crisis. They can also lead to potentially harmful behaviors that can interfere with the ability to stay healthy or protect loved ones from Covid-19. When we asked dozens of interviewees across a spectrum of demographics, “What is Covid-19?” they consistently responded with answers like, “It’s a guy we don’t know,” or “It’s dangerous because we know the cold and the flu, but we don’t know this one.”

The people we have interviewed want to know the story of Covid-19. Some scour news articles about the trajectory of droplets and the shape of the Covid-19 particle. Many anxiously read ever-changing stories about where and how the virus lives: Does it remain on cardboard, and for how long? Do children carry it? Is being 6 feet apart safe for both inside and outside?


These stories change how people imagine the virus and its impact on bodies and lives. People use them to turn Covid-19 into the virus they know instead of one causing a mysterious disease around the globe.

One person described the virus by saying, “This guy is new so we’re running as fast as we can to catch up.” Another said it’s, “the flu on steroids.” A friend imagined the virus as a living entity that moved in this way: “I have this vision of Covid balls marching up my nose.”


Many interviewees told us that the virus was out to get them. Others think of the virus particles as robots or heartless enemies. A few even suggested that people created the virus in a lab and released it with malicious intent.

One interviewee said, I will “never be able to look at the world the same way again” after watching data visualizations of how far a sneeze travels or sweat flying off people running or riding bikes. Each person now makes new choices about where and how they move through a store, if at all, and when they need to cross to the other side of the street while walking the dog.

The stories people hold of the origin and intent of unknown particles can and do lead to sometimes illogical conclusions about other people. That’s not unexpected. Throughout history there have been examples of epidemics and blame. Someone else is often considered to be the vector of disease. Some interviewees in the Southwest told us that they avoid shopping where Indigenous people go because of high rates of Covid-19 on reservations, indicating the kind of racism and avoidance that often comes with contagious disease.

What we are seeing in our data from this project has a twist on the idea of “other.” People are telling themselves stories about the safety of people they know. This means that many people report that they’re doing everything possible to stay safe and, in the next breath, tell us about a party they attended for the holidays with friends and family. “It’s OK,” they say, “we knew everyone there.”

“Knowing” others, for our interviewees, can mean kinship, or it can mean being familiar with where they work or how much risk they take. At first glance, this scrutiny might seem to work. Someone who works at a big box store might not be safe, while someone who works at home or with just two or three people, limiting their interactions with the public, might be trusted. But this logic often skips a beat. The “people we know,” they tell us, sometimes just flew in on a plane. Or they work in a hospital’s Covid-19 unit. Or they are good people who, the speaker says, wouldn’t ever take risks.

It is within the intimacy of friendship and love that people assume safety and tamp down the stories of risk.

Most people know logically that viruses do not travel along lines of familiarity, and familiarity does not cancel contagion. But in moments of weakness in a time when hope seems dim, it’s easy to let the story of a particle determine where and how to connect with other people.

The take-home message from our interviews is that all of us should take a good look at the chances we take and who we consider to be safe and remain careful about exposure and risk through this dark winter until the pandemic lets up — and before we make choices that could end in despair.

Lisa J. Hardy is a medical anthropologist, associate professor of anthropology, and director of the Social Science Community-engagement Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Ariz.

  • This great article underscores / validates crucial elements of Covid spread that often get minimized through people’s “logic” of thinking whom they know / trust are “safe”. A dear friend of mine keeps going to stores, is incapable of compressing the acquisition of “necessities” in one trip or visit. Her husband is paranoid about getting Covid, yet does the same. So – very unfortunately – due to her/their choices – I will not see this friend – until she changes this habit, or until there is no Covid in my region, or until most are vaccinated. It certainly is not easy, but brains must prevail during a pandemic.

  • In some respects it’s similar to the early years of the AIDS pandemic. AIDS wasn’t as easily transmissible as COVID, but if you got it there was no treatment and, so far as we knew at the time, it was invariably fatal. The question you needed to consider was, “how well do you know the person you’re having sex with?”

  • I totally agree with this article. The things people say, unprompted, about who they feel is a risk to them, bear this out 100%.

    I am in an area undergoing a big surge now, so the importance of staying safe until the vaccines get to us is very much highlighted for me and everyone in this area who is thinking about this.

    But, can we talk about how the medical establishment failed us?

    No one expects perfection, but we were told not to worry about masks, which was a deliberate lie, and may have been extremely destructive – who knows how much urging everyone to use any mask they could find or make could have helped?
    And we had at least 3 vaccines soon after this hit, but are only now getting them into arms. We should have done human challenge testing, and/or “Right to Try” for vaccines, very soon after they were invented.

    • “… which was a deliberate lie …” BS! What proof do you have that we were deliberately lied to? Awareness grows as knowledge is gained. More likely that reflected the state of knowledge at that time. Support your accusation.

  • “Most people know logically that viruses do not travel along lines of familiarity, and familiarity does not cancel contagion.”

    Thank you for the succinct summary of what constitutes daily life. My wife and I have been fortunate so far, despite a few stupid decisions that put us at risk.

    We are scheduled for vaccinations on February 11, and we have doubled down on our safety practices. It’s hard to keep one’s guard up for a year, and I don’t want to screw things up in the home stretch.

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