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WASHINGTON — The White House will soon unveil a wide-reaching public relations campaign aimed at boosting vaccine confidence and uptake across the U.S., Biden administration aides told STAT.

This television, radio, and digital advertising blitz, set to kick off within weeks, will focus on Americans outright skeptical of vaccines’ safety or effectiveness as well as those who are potentially more willing to seek a Covid-19 immunization but don’t yet know where, when, or how. Specifically, the campaign will target three groups in which access, apathy, or outright skepticism may pose a barrier to vaccinations: young people, people of color, and conservatives, according to a Biden aide. Congress and the administration have set aside over $1.5 billion for the effort.


The effort highlights a looming and underappreciated public health challenge: Though millions of Americans are currently clamoring to receive a Covid-19 vaccine, in a few short months, or even weeks, the opposite may be true. Instead of scrambling to manufacture doses, the government may soon be scrambling to find arms willing to receive them.

While the administration Covid response advisers organizing the effort are broadly optimistic, they and many public health experts fear that without winning buy-in from a critical, final slice of the population, the effort could fall short of its goal: effectively ending the country’s coronavirus crisis.

“I’m worried about the 15% of Americans who say they will not take the vaccine,” said Sten Vermund, the dean of the Yale School of Public Health. “And about 8% or 9% of Americans say, ‘I will take it if they make me, if my job forces me to.’ So that’s about 23% or 24%, and that’s flirting with the level we need to get to herd immunity.”


The rollout fulfills one of Biden’s first promises in office. He pledged on Jan. 21 to kick off an “unprecedented vaccination public health campaign” aimed at convincing every American adult to seek a Covid-19 immunization.

As for the specific content, administration officials said they were mindful that appeals directly from President Biden or Anthony Fauci are not likely to sway vaccine-hesitant people. As a result, they are expected to recruit both celebrities and trusted local officials to advance the pro-vaccine message.

Dorit Reiss, a law professor at the University of California, Hastings, whose research focuses on vaccine policy and ethics, explained why Biden and his lieutenants may not always be the best suited to spread the word.

“Messaging from the Biden administration might not be where conservative communities would look for guidance,” she said. “It’s community leaders that you want to get on board, and it might be better for the federal government to provide funding for a variety of willing community leaders to address those communities instead.”

To that point, the plan includes a major emphasis on community-level messaging: Federal officials have already allocated more than $500 million for local efforts to recruit local leaders and community organizations to encourage vaccine uptake and ensure racial equity in the vaccine distribution effort.

On a national level, White House officials declined to share details of what form many of the ads will take, or, in particular, whose voices they’ll highlight. But in a hint of the strategy, top administration officials have been already deployed to spread the word. Vice President Kamala Harris, the first Black and South Asian woman elected to the White House, has spent much of the past three weeks conducting in-person outreach, TV appearances, and radio interviews, in many cases geared specifically toward boosting vaccine uptake in Black communities.

Convincing Americans that the current vaccines are safe and effective, experts say, could make the difference between a country with widespread immunity and one in which the disease continues to spread, albeit more slowly.

It is already clear that the White House is not deploying a one-message-fits-all strategy. Marcella Nunez-Smith, the Yale physician-researcher advising Biden on health equity, appeared last month on The Shade Room, an online outlet geared toward Black viewers, and Anthony Fauci, the top government infectious diseases researcher, has conducted interviews with several Spanish-language news and entertainment outlets. 

The administration has even deployed Francis Collins, the longtime director of the National Institutes of Health, to address one of the demographics that early surveys show is most likely to decline a Covid-19 vaccination: white, conservative, evangelical Christians. (According to a recent Marist poll, the three most vaccine-hesitant demographics are supporters of former President Donald Trump, Republicans, and white evangelical Christians, at 47%, 41%, and 38% likely to decline a vaccine, respectively.) 

A devout Christian himself, Collins cast the vaccines as a gift from God in an interview with the Christian Broadcasting Network, and stressed that the Catholic Church has endorsed the use of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine despite its use of a cell line that originated from an abortion procedure decades ago. 

The White House’s announcement of the PR blitz will come just days after it decreed that by May 1, all state and local governments would be required to make all American adults eligible to sign up for vaccine appointments. The U.S. is currently administering over 2 million doses daily. Just over 10% of the population is fully vaccinated, and roughly 20% has received at least one vaccine dose.

But even as the vaccine rollout continues, some experts have fretted that when it comes to the PR campaign, there’s no time to waste. 

“I think President Biden is right that by May, there will be enough vaccines for anyone who wants them, and we’ll start looking to people who don’t,” Reiss said. “I don’t think we can wait. It’s not that long.” 

In recent weeks, White House aides including Nunez-Smith and Cameron Webb, another physician advising Biden’s pandemic response on equity issues, have workshopped the plan with the Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and local community leaders.

“I’ve been hosting roundtables with key constituencies to make sure that we get that effort right,” Nunez-Smith said during a press briefing last week. “We’re building relationships with trusted messengers, all over the country, to make sure they have the best information possible to share with their communities.”

Congress and the administration have pledged major resources for the effort.

Much of the project’s funding comes from the sweeping $1.9 trillion Covid-19 relief bill Biden signed last week.

The administration has also already pledged over $500 million in additional funds to address vaccine uptake, health literacy, and equity in the vaccine distribution, including $250 million to fund local health literacy projects and another $255 million for the CDC to fund local government efforts to focus on equity and confidence in underserved communities.

Upon taking power in January, the administration also inherited a third funding stream meant for Covid-19 mitigation and prevention efforts: a $250 million contract that the Trump administration inked with the Virginia-based PR firm Fors Marsh months ago. That campaign, which began under President Trump and has continued under the Biden administration, has helped to fund Spanish-language radio commercials, ads in newspapers serving the Black community, and other Covid-19 mitigation outreach work.

Taken together, federal efforts to promote vaccine uptake total nearly $2 billion.

The Biden administration will also have backup from the nonprofit world. It’s working with the Ad Council, a nonprofit agency that has partnered with the government on PSAs meant to reduce drug and tobacco use, on a $50 million campaign meant to sell Americans on vaccine safety and effectiveness. The Creative Coalition, another nonprofit, has also won buy-in from a collection of celebrities, corporate executives, and prominent public health figures for its own vaccine-focused campaign.

Those campaigns have largely relied on the same strategies foreshadowed by Biden aides. Much of the Ad Council’s early effort, which consists of TV commercials, radio and print ads, and digital messaging, has stayed away from celebrities but nonetheless focused on Black and Spanish-speaking communities.

At a virtual kickoff dinner for the Creative Coalition campaign, meanwhile, Rochelle Walensky, the CDC director, said it would seek to “harness the power of influencers in building vaccine confidence.” Fauci called celebrities’ ability to build vaccine trust “extraordinary.”

In light of recent data, however, public health experts and Biden officials acknowledge that messaging to white conservatives — in other words, those least likely to view the new administration as credible — might pose the biggest hurdle to achieving true, population-wide immunity.

“When Magic Johnson said: ‘I have HIV, I got tested, and I am going to keep my family safe, I’m going to take antiretroviral drugs,’ we saw HIV testing rates go up the day after his announcement,” said Vermund, the Yale public health dean, who is advising the Creative Coalition effort. “It may take Donald Trump as a celebrity, saying, ‘I got the vaccine, I feel great.’ It may take a different kind of celebrity to reach the conspiracists and the anti-vax folks who are militant in that space.” (On Sunday, Fauci called for Trump to encourage his supporters to get vaccinated, calling such a message a potential “game-changer.”)

The messaging and public health experts behind the federal campaign and both nonprofit efforts have recognized, however, that their initiatives carry an inherent obstacle: Regardless of which community they’re addressing, a brief word from a celebrity or politician is unlikely to be effective on its own.

Part of the Creative Coalition’s mission, said the group’s CEO, Robin Bronk, is to recognize the ineffectiveness of simply parachuting into communities for a one-off celebrity cameo — a message she said the nonprofit and federal efforts would do well to bear in mind.

“We call it ‘red carpet-bagging,’ meaning that if you blow in and blow out for something, it’s not authentic, and it’s going to do more damage to the issue,” Bronk said. “Sometimes we don’t get involved in issues, particularly because getting the Hollywood community into it would do more harm than good. It’s not just throwing a celebrity up getting an arm jabbed — we have to be thoughtful.”

Correction: This story was updated to reflect that the Biden administration will not unveil the PR campaign this week. 

  • I am 71 years old male and prefer natural immunity. Most synthetic vaccines actually don’t provide life-long term immunity but do have some really nasty side effects like blood clots, Bells Palsy, strokes, paralysis or even death. So take the time to become informed. You can’t have inform medical consent unless you endeavor to read the vaccine monographs (its on-line at Pfizer, Moderna, etc). Some non-medical ingredient listed in the Pfizer vaccine that I don’t want injected into my body are anti-freeze, sugar and clorestoral. Their list of medicinal ingredients includes mRDN a novel never-before-used-in-a-human vaccine. mRNA is genetically altered and/or altering component. As well,when you read the fine print you discover that the vaccine do not actually guarantee that you will not get covid, nor make you incapable of spreading it. The monograph tells the prescribing person, nurse, staff or doctor, to inform the recipient that the vaccine only has an intern temporary license and the patient is to be informed of this exception. Manufactures can not be sued for any damages resulting from people taking the vaccine, thus making the vaccine producers immune from class action law suits. That is not encouraging for an educated, thoughtful adult. Therefore I am not taking their vaccines.

  • The propaganda machine is in full swing, huh? Here is what I wish people would talk about: we have never in the history of the world engaged in such a massive vaccination campaign during a pandemic. Therefore, the government and health experts CANNOT tell us that doing so will create herd immunity or stop a pandemic. We have never ever used mRNA technology on a population level. We do not know its real-world efficacy, nor do we know its long-term consequences. The authorities CANNOT tell us that these are truly safe or effective in the long term. Yet they continue to do so, and they wonder why lots of people aren’t listening. They also continue to lie and smear any evidence about promising therapeutics and natural immunity. Why would anyone who reads more than just the headlines trust any of these people?

  • There are many valid reasons for people to be cautious about getting injected with these experimental substances. I’ll only note a couple in this comment.

    The ads the government will produce will conveniently leave out the pertinent fact that we have no clue what mRNA does in the long term. There’s a lot of concern about what it might do to our immune systems. Then there is the fact that these substances have not actually been tested regarding their ability to induce immunity.

    WHO spokesperson Margaret Harris said: “it’s very important for people to understand that at the moment, all we know about the vaccines is that they will very effectively reduce your risk of severe disease. We haven’t seen any evidence yet indicating whether or not they stop transmission.” And Dr. David Martin claimed: It’s Gene Therapy, Not a Vaccine. One might add: It’s not science, it’s a sales job. Especially concerning the new definition of herd immunity and the imperative of getting the vaccines out to as many people as possible as fast as possible to achieve it.

    Will these “vaccines” be successful? Maybe, but I’ll give them at least a year before I consent to becoming a test subject and no amount of government or celebrity propaganda can change that.

    • Most of this comment is ridiculous on its face. Long term effects of RNA? RNA degrades in hours to days. That’s the whole point of RNA. And unless you believe some conspiracy theory about the RNA coding for other things than they say it does, _any_ effect the RNA can possibly have is over in a very short period of time.
      Stop fearmongering.

  • The fact the government sees a need to spend $1.5 billion to promote taking a supposed life saving vaccine, that will ultimately allow people to get back to “normal”, says everything you need to know.

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  • While I believe that Congress had good intentions, I am concerned that this $1.5 billion campaign could backfire. Any celebrities endorsing a Covid vaccine should speak on their own initiative out of a desire to prevent Covid. Being part of a large government campaign, in and of itself, could reduce their credibility.

    Furthermore, it is important to address the root of this issue: widespread Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers (see ). When it comes to medical issues, people are much more likely to listen to their healthcare providers than celebrities. If their doctors are reluctant to fully endorse Covid vaccines, why would people listen to actors or musicians? And healthcare providers themselves are not likely to be influenced by celebrity endorsements. Focus groups working with healthcare providers to understand and address their concerns are much more important at this stage than splashy TV celebrity moments.

  • As a retired professor, I spent a lot of time correcting bad thinking. The bad thinking is usually the result of propaganda by someone else. This anti-vaccine propaganda is mostly rooted in the former president’s lies, the people, and the other people around them, who believed our most lying former president do not deserve the damage a Covid-19 infection can cause.

    • Professor:
      I did not follow all the vaccine controversies, but I know of no statements by Trump indicating the vaccines are harmful or even ineffective.
      In fact, Trump complained during the election, that the approval of vaccines was being delayed to cost him the election.
      Additionally, Trump started Operation Warp Speed and bragged about how rapidly vaccines were brought to use.
      None of that is consistent with undermining the value of the vaccines at all.
      It seems kind of ironic to me that you offered your CV as “correcting bad thinking”, then not making ANY case for your claim, “the former President’s lies” made people not want to take the vaccine, and with so much obvious evidence at hand to refute it.

      The bad thinking here is yours – you get an F. Try to stay rational next time – there is plenty to criticize about Trump, but not much, in fact almost nothing, in regards to the vaccines.

  • It is really disheartening to read about $.5B USD spent to talk people into taking a vaccine.
    First off, IF the vaccines are 95% effective, it is legitimate to view the vaccine refusers as making a choice to get sick or die, and that choice not really effecting other people – OK, in theory there would be some very unlucky vaccinated people who get sick or die because an unvaccinated person gives it to them. This number of people would not be out of line with the number who get killed by drunk drivers who had been arrested before, for drunk driving, but were not immediately locked up for the rest of their lives to prevent them from driving drunk again. Similarly, people who got thier cars broken into by people who had been arrested for car break-ins, and so on and so on.
    The anti-vaxxers will almost entirely hurt only themselves, but that seems to be something the nanny staters can not stand.
    But I fear that may not be the motive behind this $1.5B campaign. Or not all of it. It may be the Feds are predicting, or already know, our vaccines will be much less than 95% effective against many of the variants, and, if that is true, the only way to stop more outbreaks is with herd immunity.

    • To try to clarify, my belief is Biden et al would be doing a pro-vaccine campaign even if the vaccine was 100% effective against all variants. I think he would say “that is who we are” – they are nanny state through and through – so we can not infer from this campaign they are worried about the variants -and the campaign sounds like it will be used to get a lot of air time in PSAs for local officials already in power, so that is another motivation .
      But other things Biden has said and done indicate worry over the variants, which he even specifically mentioned as a reason we might not be able to hold the dangled July 4 BBQ. That worry is not logical if one is confident immunity to the first strain, or vaccination, will be as effective against the variants.

    • The people you’re forgetting are the ones who depend on herd immunity for their safety–immunocompromised people who for whatever reason can’t get the vaccine themselves. Anti-vaxxers are a clear and present threat to them.

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