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In 2016, a landmark report was issued on the global problem of  antimicrobial resistance. The paper, commissioned by the U.K. government and the Wellcome Trust, sought to quickly grab the attention of  policymakers — by tapping a former high-profile Goldman Sachs economist named Jim O’Neill to lead the effort. He issued a particularly dire warning of what was to come if the issue was ignored.

“It is fair to assume that over 1 million people will have died from antimicrobial resistance since I started this review in the summer of  2014. This is truly shocking,” O’Neill wrote at the time, adding that the cost in terms of lost global production between now and 2050 would be an enormous $100 trillion if action was not taken.

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